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<!-- $Id: dnssec-keygen.docbook,v 1.33 2009/11/03 21:44:46 each Exp $ -->
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<refentry id="man.dnssec-keygen">
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  <refentryinfo>
    <date>June 30, 2000</date>
  </refentryinfo>

  <refmeta>
    <refentrytitle><application>dnssec-keygen</application></refentrytitle>
    <manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
    <refmiscinfo>BIND9</refmiscinfo>
  </refmeta>

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  <refnamediv>
    <refname><application>dnssec-keygen</application></refname>
    <refpurpose>DNSSEC key generation tool</refpurpose>
  </refnamediv>

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  <docinfo>
    <copyright>
      <year>2004</year>
      <year>2005</year>
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      <year>2007</year>
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      <year>2008</year>
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      <year>2009</year>
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      <holder>Internet Systems Consortium, Inc. ("ISC")</holder>
    </copyright>
    <copyright>
      <year>2000</year>
      <year>2001</year>
      <year>2002</year>
      <year>2003</year>
      <holder>Internet Software Consortium.</holder>
    </copyright>
  </docinfo>

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  <refsynopsisdiv>
    <cmdsynopsis>
      <command>dnssec-keygen</command>
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      <arg><option>-a <replaceable class="parameter">algorithm</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg ><option>-b <replaceable class="parameter">keysize</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-n <replaceable class="parameter">nametype</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-3</option></arg>
      <arg><option>-A <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-C</option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-c <replaceable class="parameter">class</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-D <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-E <replaceable class="parameter">engine</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-e</option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-f <replaceable class="parameter">flag</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-G</option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-g <replaceable class="parameter">generator</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-h</option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-I <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-K <replaceable class="parameter">directory</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-k</option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-P <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-p <replaceable class="parameter">protocol</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-q</option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-R <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-r <replaceable class="parameter">randomdev</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-s <replaceable class="parameter">strength</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-t <replaceable class="parameter">type</replaceable></option></arg>
      <arg><option>-v <replaceable class="parameter">level</replaceable></option></arg>
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      <arg><option>-z</option></arg>
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      <arg choice="req">name</arg>
    </cmdsynopsis>
  </refsynopsisdiv>

  <refsect1>
    <title>DESCRIPTION</title>
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    <para><command>dnssec-keygen</command>
      generates keys for DNSSEC (Secure DNS), as defined in RFC 2535
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      and RFC 4034.  It can also generate keys for use with
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      TSIG (Transaction Signatures) as defined in RFC 2845, or TKEY
      (Transaction Key) as defined in RFC 2930.
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    </para>
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    <para>
      The <option>name</option> of the key is specified on the command
      line.  For DNSSEC keys, this must match the name of the zone for
      which the key is being generated.
    </para>
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  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>OPTIONS</title>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-a <replaceable class="parameter">algorithm</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
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            Selects the cryptographic algorithm.  For DNSSEC keys, the value
            of <option>algorithm</option> must be one of RSAMD5, RSASHA1,
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	    DSA, NSEC3RSASHA1, NSEC3DSA, RSASHA256 or RSASHA512.
	    For TSIG/TKEY, the value must
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            be DH (Diffie Hellman), HMAC-MD5, HMAC-SHA1, HMAC-SHA224,
            HMAC-SHA256, HMAC-SHA384, or HMAC-SHA512.  These values are
            case insensitive.
          </para>
          <para>
            If no algorithm is specified, then RSASHA1 will be used by
            default, unless the <option>-3</option> option is specified,
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            in which case NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used instead.  (If
            <option>-3</option> is used and an algorithm is specified,
            that algorithm will be checked for compatibility with NSEC3.)
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          </para>
          <para>
            Note 1: that for DNSSEC, RSASHA1 is a mandatory to implement
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            algorithm, and DSA is recommended.  For TSIG, HMAC-MD5 is
	    mandatory.
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          </para>
          <para>
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            Note 2: DH, HMAC-MD5, and HMAC-SHA1 through HMAC-SHA512
            automatically set the -T KEY option.
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          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-b <replaceable class="parameter">keysize</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the number of bits in the key.  The choice of key
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            size depends on the algorithm used.  RSA keys must be
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            between 512 and 2048 bits.  Diffie Hellman keys must be between
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            128 and 4096 bits.  DSA keys must be between 512 and 1024
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            bits and an exact multiple of 64.  HMAC keys must be
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            between 1 and 512 bits.
          </para>
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          <para>
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            The key size does not need to be specified if using a default
            algorithm.  The default key size is 1024 bits for zone signing
            keys (ZSK's) and 2048 bits for key signing keys (KSK's,
            generated with <option>-f KSK</option>).  However, if an
            algorithm is explicitly specified with the <option>-a</option>,
            then there is no default key size, and the <option>-b</option>
            must be used.
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          </para>
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        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-n <replaceable class="parameter">nametype</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the owner type of the key.  The value of
            <option>nametype</option> must either be ZONE (for a DNSSEC
            zone key (KEY/DNSKEY)), HOST or ENTITY (for a key associated with
            a host (KEY)),
            USER (for a key associated with a user(KEY)) or OTHER (DNSKEY).
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            These values are case insensitive.  Defaults to ZONE for DNSKEY
	    generation.
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          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-3</term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
	    Use an NSEC3-capable algorithm to generate a DNSSEC key.
            If this option is used and no algorithm is explicitly
            set on the command line, NSEC3RSASHA1 will be used by
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            default. Note that RSASHA256 and RSASHA512 algorithms
	    are NSEC3-capable.
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          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-C</term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
	    Compatibility mode:  generates an old-style key, without
	    any metadata.  By default, <command>dnssec-keygen</command>
	    will include the key's creation date in the metadata stored
	    with the private key, and other dates may be set there as well
	    (publication date, activation date, etc).  Keys that include
	    this data may be incompatible with older versions of BIND; the
	    <option>-C</option> option suppresses them.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-c <replaceable class="parameter">class</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            Indicates that the DNS record containing the key should have
            the specified class.  If not specified, class IN is used.
          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-E <replaceable class="parameter">engine</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Uses a crypto hardware (OpenSSL engine) for random number
            and, when supported, key generation. When compiled with PKCS#11
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            support it defaults to pkcs11; the empty name resets it to
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            no engine.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-e</term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            If generating an RSAMD5/RSASHA1 key, use a large exponent.
          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-f <replaceable class="parameter">flag</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            Set the specified flag in the flag field of the KEY/DNSKEY record.
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            The only recognized flags are KSK (Key Signing Key) and REVOKE.
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          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-G</term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Generate a key, but do not publish it or sign with it.  This
            option is incompatible with -P and -A.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-g <replaceable class="parameter">generator</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            If generating a Diffie Hellman key, use this generator.
            Allowed values are 2 and 5.  If no generator
            is specified, a known prime from RFC 2539 will be used
            if possible; otherwise the default is 2.
          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-h</term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            Prints a short summary of the options and arguments to
            <command>dnssec-keygen</command>.
          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-K <replaceable class="parameter">directory</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the directory in which the key files are to be written.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-k</term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
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            Deprecated in favor of -T KEY.
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          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-p <replaceable class="parameter">protocol</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the protocol value for the generated key.  The protocol
            is a number between 0 and 255.  The default is 3 (DNSSEC).
            Other possible values for this argument are listed in
            RFC 2535 and its successors.
          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-q</term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Quiet mode: Suppresses unnecessary output, including
            progress indication.  Without this option, when
            <command>dnssec-keygen</command> is run interactively
            to generate an RSA or DSA key pair, it will print a string
            of symbols to <filename>stderr</filename> indicating the
            progress of the key generation.  A '.' indicates that a
            random number has been found which passed an initial
            sieve test; '+' means a number has passed a single
            round of the Miller-Rabin primality test; a space
            means that the number has passed all the tests and is
            a satisfactory key.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-r <replaceable class="parameter">randomdev</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the source of randomness.  If the operating
            system does not provide a <filename>/dev/random</filename>
            or equivalent device, the default source of randomness
            is keyboard input.  <filename>randomdev</filename>
            specifies
            the name of a character device or file containing random
            data to be used instead of the default.  The special value
            <filename>keyboard</filename> indicates that keyboard
            input should be used.
          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-s <replaceable class="parameter">strength</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the strength value of the key.  The strength is
            a number between 0 and 15, and currently has no defined
            purpose in DNSSEC.
          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-T <replaceable class="parameter">rrtype</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Specifies the resource record type to use for the key.
            <option>rrtype</option> must be either DNSKEY or KEY.  The
            default is DNSKEY when using a DNSSEC algorithm, but it can be
            overridden to KEY for use with SIG(0).
          <para>
          </para>
            Using any TSIG algorithm (HMAC-* or DH) forces this option
            to KEY.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

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      <varlistentry>
        <term>-t <replaceable class="parameter">type</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            Indicates the use of the key.  <option>type</option> must be
            one of AUTHCONF, NOAUTHCONF, NOAUTH, or NOCONF.  The default
            is AUTHCONF.  AUTH refers to the ability to authenticate
            data, and CONF the ability to encrypt data.
          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-v <replaceable class="parameter">level</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the debugging level.
          </para>
        </listitem>
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      </varlistentry>

    </variablelist>
  </refsect1>

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  <refsect1>
    <title>TIMING OPTIONS</title>

    <para>
      Dates can be expressed in the format YYYYMMDD or YYYYMMDDHHMMSS.
      If the argument begins with a '+' or '-', it is interpreted as
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      an offset from the present time.  For convenience, if such an offset
      is followed by one of the suffixes 'y', 'mo', 'w', 'd', 'h', or 'mi',
      then the offset is computed in years (defined as 365 24-hour days,
      ignoring leap years), months (defined as 30 24-hour days), weeks,
      days, hours, or minutes, respectively.  Without a suffix, the offset
      is computed in seconds.
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    </para>

    <variablelist>
      <varlistentry>
        <term>-P <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the date on which a key is to be published to the zone.
            After that date, the key will be included in the zone but will
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            not be used to sign it.  If not set, and if the -G option has
            not been used, the default is "now".
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          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-A <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the date on which the key is to be activated.  After that
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            date, the key will be included in the zone and used to sign
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            it.  If not set, and if the -G option has not been used, the
            default is "now".
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          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-R <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the date on which the key is to be revoked.  After that
            date, the key will be flagged as revoked.  It will be included
            in the zone and will be used to sign it.
          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
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        <term>-I <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></term>
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        <listitem>
          <para>
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            Sets the date on which the key is to be retired.  After that
            date, the key will still be included in the zone, but it
            will not be used to sign it.
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          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>

      <varlistentry>
        <term>-D <replaceable class="parameter">date/offset</replaceable></term>
        <listitem>
          <para>
            Sets the date on which the key is to be deleted.  After that
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            date, the key will no longer be included in the zone.  (It
            may remain in the key repository, however.)
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          </para>
        </listitem>
      </varlistentry>
    </variablelist>
  </refsect1>


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  <refsect1>
    <title>GENERATED KEYS</title>
    <para>
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      When <command>dnssec-keygen</command> completes
      successfully,
      it prints a string of the form <filename>Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii</filename>
      to the standard output.  This is an identification string for
      the key it has generated.
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    </para>
    <itemizedlist>
      <listitem>
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        <para><filename>nnnn</filename> is the key name.
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        </para>
      </listitem>
      <listitem>
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        <para><filename>aaa</filename> is the numeric representation
          of the
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          algorithm.
        </para>
      </listitem>
      <listitem>
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        <para><filename>iiiii</filename> is the key identifier (or
          footprint).
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        </para>
      </listitem>
    </itemizedlist>
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    <para><command>dnssec-keygen</command> 
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      creates two files, with names based
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      on the printed string.  <filename>Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.key</filename>
      contains the public key, and
      <filename>Knnnn.+aaa+iiiii.private</filename> contains the
      private
      key.
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    </para>
    <para>
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      The <filename>.key</filename> file contains a DNS KEY record
      that
      can be inserted into a zone file (directly or with a $INCLUDE
      statement).
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    </para>
    <para>
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      The <filename>.private</filename> file contains
      algorithm-specific
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      fields.  For obvious security reasons, this file does not have
      general read permission.
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    </para>
    <para>
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      Both <filename>.key</filename> and <filename>.private</filename>
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      files are generated for symmetric encryption algorithms such as
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      HMAC-MD5, even though the public and private key are equivalent.
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    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>EXAMPLE</title>
    <para>
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      To generate a 768-bit DSA key for the domain
      <userinput>example.com</userinput>, the following command would be
      issued:
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    </para>
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    <para><userinput>dnssec-keygen -a DSA -b 768 -n ZONE example.com</userinput>
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    </para>
    <para>
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      The command would print a string of the form:
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    </para>
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    <para><userinput>Kexample.com.+003+26160</userinput>
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    </para>
    <para>
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      In this example, <command>dnssec-keygen</command> creates
      the files <filename>Kexample.com.+003+26160.key</filename>
      and
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      <filename>Kexample.com.+003+26160.private</filename>.
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    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>SEE ALSO</title>
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    <para><citerefentry>
        <refentrytitle>dnssec-signzone</refentrytitle><manvolnum>8</manvolnum>
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      </citerefentry>,
      <citetitle>BIND 9 Administrator Reference Manual</citetitle>,
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      <citetitle>RFC 2539</citetitle>,
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      <citetitle>RFC 2845</citetitle>,
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      <citetitle>RFC 4034</citetitle>.
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    </para>
  </refsect1>

  <refsect1>
    <title>AUTHOR</title>
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    <para><corpauthor>Internet Systems Consortium</corpauthor>
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    </para>
  </refsect1>

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