diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/epub/eyes17.epub b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/epub/eyes17.epub deleted file mode 100644 index 98de52fc20ffe2d0c89b25c7e164e8abd45dcb34..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/epub/eyes17.epub and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/1.1.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/1.1.html deleted file mode 100644 index 2c1ec27b7447afc69e004ec6412f83abbd591387..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/1.1.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,138 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Introduction — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
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Introduction

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Science is the study of the physical world by systematic observations -and experiments. Proper science education is essential for cultivating a -society where reasoning and logical thinking prevails and not -superstition and irrational beliefs. Science education is also essential -for training enough technicians, engineers and scientists for the -economy of the modern world. It is widely accepted that personal -experience in the form of experiments and observations, either carried -out by students or performed as demonstrations by teachers, are -essential to the pedagogy of science. However, almost everywhere science -is mostly taught from the text books without giving importance to -experiments, partly due to lack of equipment. As a result, most of the -students fail to correlate their classroom experience to problems -encountered in daily life. To some extent this can be corrected by -learning science based on exploration and experimenting.

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The advent of personal computers and their easy availability has opened -up a new path for making laboratory equipment. Addition of some hardware -to an ordinary computer can convert it in to a science laboratory. -Performing quick measurements with good accuracy enables one to study a -wide range of phenomena. Science experiments generally involve -measuring/controlling physical parameters like temperature, pressure, -velocity, acceleration, force, voltage, current etc. If the measured -physical property is changing rapidly, the measurements need to be -automated and a computer becomes a useful tool. For example, -understanding the variation of AC mains voltage with time requires -measuring it after every millisecond.

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The ability to perform experiments with reasonable accuracy also opens -up the possibility of research oriented science education. Students can -compare the experimental data with mathematical models and examine the -fundamental laws governing various phenomena. Research scientists do the -same with highly sophisticated equipment. The expEYES ( expEriments for -Young Engineers & Scientists) kit is designed to support a wide range of -experiments, from school to post graduate level. It also acts as a test -equipment for electronics engineers and hobbyists. The simple and open -architecture of expEYES allows the users to develop new experiments, -without getting into the details of electronics or computer -programming. This User’s manual describes expEYES-17 along with -several experiments, there is also a Programmer’s manual available.

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The equipment

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ExpEYES-17 is interfaced and powered by the USB port of the computer, -and it is programmable in Python. It can function as a low frequency -oscilloscope, function generator, programmable voltage source, frequency -counter and data logger. For connecting external signals, it has two -spring loaded terminals blocks, one for output signals and another for -inputs, as shown in figure 1.1↓. The -software can monitor and control the voltages at these terminals. In -order to measure other parameters (like temperature, pressure etc.), we -need to convert them in to electrical signals by using appropriate -sensor elements. The accuracy of the voltage measurements is decided by -the stability of the 3.3V reference used, it is 50ppm per degree -celcius. The gain and offset errors are eliminated by initial -calibration, using a 16bit ADC. Even though our primary objective is to -do experiments, you are advised to read through the brief description of -the equipment given below. The device can be also used as a test -equipment for electrical and electronics engineering experiments.

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IMPORTANT :

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The external voltages connected to ExpEYES17 must be within the allowed -limits. Inputs A1 and A2 must be within ±16 volts range and Inputs IN1 -and IN2 must be in 0 to 3.3V range. Exceeding these limits may result in -damage to the equipment. To measure higher voltages, scale them down -using resistive potential divider networks.

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-_images/eyes17-panel.jpg -
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Figure 1.1 The ExpEYES17 top panel showing the external connections.

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External connections

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The functions of the external connections briefly explained below. All -the black coulored terminals are at ground potential, all other voltages -are measured with respect to it.

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Outputs:

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Constant Current Source (CCS) :

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The constant current source can be switched ON and OFF under software -control. The nominal value is 1.1 mA but may vary from unit to unit, due -to component tolerances. To measure the exact value, connect an ammeter -from CCS to GND. Another method is to connect a known resistance (~1k) -and measure the voltage drop across it. The load resistor should be less -than 3k for this current source.

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Programmable Voltage (PV1) :

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Can be set, from software, to any value in the -5V to +5V range. The -resolution is 12 bits, implies a minimum voltage step of around 2.5 -millivolts.

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Programmable Voltage (PV2) :

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Can be set, from software, to any value in the -3.3V to +3.3V range. The -resolution is 12 bits.

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Square Wave SQ1:

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Output swings from 0 to 5 volts and frequency can be varied 4Hz to -100kHz. All intermediate values of frequency are not possible. The duty -cycle of the output is programmable. Setting frequency to 0Hz will make -the output HIGH and setting it to  − 1 will make it LOW, in both cases -the wave generation is disabled. SQR1 output has a 100~\Omega series -resistor inside so that it can drive LEDs directly.

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Square Wave SQ2:

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Output swings from 0 to 5 volts and frequency can be varied 4Hz to -100kHz. All intermediate values of frequency are not possible. The duty -cycle of the output is programmable. SQR2 is not available when WG is -active.

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Digital Output (OD1) :

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The voltage at OD1 can be set to 0 or 5 volts, using software.

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Sine/Triangular Wave WG:

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Frequency can be varied from 5Hz to 5kHz. The peak value of the -amplitude can be set to 3 volts, 1.0 volt or 80 mV. Shape of the output -waveform is programmable. Using the GUI sine or triangular can be -selected. WG bar is inverted WG.

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Inputs:

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Capacitance meter IN1:

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Capacitance connected between IN1 and Ground can be measured. It works -better for lower capacitance values, upto 10 nanoFarads, results may not -be very accurate beyond that.

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Frequency Counter IN2:

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Capable of measuring frequencies upto several MHz.

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Resistive Sensor Input (SEN):

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This is mainly meant for sensors like Light Dependent Resistor, -Thermistor, Photo-transistor etc. SEN is internally connected to 3.3 -volts through a 5.1kΩ resistor.

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\pm16\ V Analog Inputs, A1 & A2:

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Can measure voltage within the ±16 volts range. The input voltage range -can be selected from .5V to 16V fullscale. Voltage at these terminals -can be displayed as a function of time, giving the functionality of a -low frequency oscilloscope. The maximum sampling rate is 1 Msps -/channel. Both have an input impedance of 1MΩ .

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\pm3.3\ V Analog Input A3:

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Can measure voltage within the ±3.3 volts range. The input can be -amplified by connecting a resistor from Rg to Ground, gain -=1 + (Rg)/(10000). This enables displaying very small amplitude signals. -The input impedance of A3 is 10MΩ.

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Microphone input MIC:

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A condenser microphone can be connected to this terminal and the output -can be captured.

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I2C Sensor Interface:

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The four connections (+5V, Ground, SCL and SDA) of the 8 terminal berg -strip supports I2C sensors. The software is capable of recognizing a -large number of commercially available I2C sensors.

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\pm\ 6\ V/10\ mA Power supply:

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The VR+ and VR- are regulated power outputs. They can supply very little -current, but good enough to power an Op-Amp.

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1.2.2 Accessory Set

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Some accessories are provided with expEYES.

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  • Pieces of wires, with pin and with crocodile clip.
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  • Condenser microphone with leads.
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  • Inductor Coil (2) : 44SWG wire on 1cm dia bobbin. Around 3000 Turns -(some may have more turns). These coils can be used for studying -inductance, electromagnetic induction etc.
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  • Piezo Electric Discs (2) : Resonant frequency is around 3500 Hz. Can -be energized by WG output or SQR1. Discs are enclosed in a plastic -shell that forms a cavity, that enhances the amplitude of sound -produced.
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  • DC Motor : Should be powered by a DC voltage less than 3 volts.
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  • Permanent Magnets : (a) 10mm dia & length (b) 5 mm dia & 10 mm length -(c) Button size magnets(2)
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  • 5mm LEDS : RED, BLUE, GREEN, WHITE
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  • Capacitors : 100pF, 0.1uF , 1 uF & 22uF
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  • Inductor : 10 mH / 20Ω,
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  • Resistors : 560Ω, 1kΩ, 2.2kΩ , 10kΩ , 51kΩ and 100 kΩ
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  • LDR
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  • Two silicon diodes (1N4148) and one 3.3 volts zener diode
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  • NPN Transistor( 2N2222)
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Software Installation

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ExpEYES can run on any computer having a Python Interpreter and required -modules. The USB interface is handled by a device driver program that -presents the USB port as a Serial port to the Python programs. The -communication the expEYES is done using a library written in Python. -Programs with GUI have been written for many experiments. Eyes17 -software require the following packages

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Any GNU/Linux distributions

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Download eyes17-x.x.x.zip (the latest version) from -http://expeyes.in and upzip it, and change to the newly created -folder. Issue the command

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$ sudo sh postinst # set user write permission

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$ python main.py

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You will get error messages for any missing packages that are required -for expeyes. Install them one by one and try again. Python programs -required for several experiments are in the same directory, they are -called by ’main.py’.

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Debian or Ubuntu GNU/Linux distributions

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Download eyes17-x.x.x.deb ( the latest version) from the software -section of http://expeyes.in and install it using the command;

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$ sudo gdebi eyes17-x.x.x.deb
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while connected to Internet

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The package ’eyes17’ (later than version 3) does not depend on the -earlier versions of ExpEYES, like expeyes junior. During installation -gdebi will automatically dowload and install all the required packages.

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The expEYES Live CD / USB pendrive

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The ISO image containing support for eyes17 can be downloaded from HERE. -Make a DVD or USB memory stick bootable using this ISO image (Download -rufus from https://rufus.akeo.ie to do this under MSWindows)

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Switch off the PC and insert the liveCD/Pendrive and switch it on. Enter -the BIOS while booting, make the CDdrive/USB hard disk as the first boot -device. A desktop will appear and you can start expEYES-17 from the menu -Applications->Education->ExpEYES-17. You can also start it from a -Terminal using the command:

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$ python /usr/share/expeyes/eyes17/main.py
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On MSWindows

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The first thing to do is to install the driver software for the USB to -serial converter IC MCP2200, available on Microchip website (also given -on expeyes website). After installing this the device will appear as a -COM port, that can be verified from the device manager of MSWindows. -After this there are two options.

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A zip file containing all the necessary things for ExpEYES is available -on the website, named eyes17win.zip. Unzip this file and run main.py -from that. By using this method you will not able to write your own -Python code to access expeyes, for that you need to install the -following

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  1. Python-2.x version
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  3. python-serial
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  5. python-qt4
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  7. python-pyqtgraph,
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  9. python-numpy
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  11. python-scipy
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Download the eyes17-x.x.x.zip ( take latest version) from the website. -Unzipping the files will create a directory named eyes17, run -main.py from that.

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The main GUI program

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Start Applications->Education->ExpEYES-17 from the menu. A four channel -oscilloscope screen with several extra features will open as shown in -figure The scope17 screen showing two traces. Various experiments can be -selected from the menu.

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The scope17 screen showing two traces

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The main window looks like a low frequency four channel oscilloscope, -with some extra features, on the right side panel. Applications for -various experiments can be selected from the pulldown menu. A brief -description of the oscilloscope program is given below.

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  • Any of the four inputs (A1, A2, A3 or MIC) can be enabled using the -corresponding checkbox. The input range can be selected by clicking -on the menubutton on the right side of the checkbox. Select the -desired input range from the popup menu.
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  • There is another checkbox, to enable mathematical fitting of the data -using V = V0sin(2πft + θ) + C to show the amplitude and -frequency.
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  • The horizontal scale (time base) can be changed by a slider, from .5 -mS fullscale to 500 mS full scale.
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  • The Checkbutton Freeze, allows to pause and resume the -oscilloscope operation.
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  • The Trigger level can be set by a slider, and there is a menubutton -to select the trigger source.
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  • To save the traces to a file, edit the filename and click on the -SaveTo button.
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  • Clicking on FFT shows the frequency spectrum of all the eneabled -channels, appears on popup windows.
  • -
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In addition to the Oscilloscope, there are several measurement/control -options available on the GUI, they are explained below.

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  • If selected, the voltages at the inputs A1, A2 and A3 are sampled -every second and displayed.
  • -
  • The resistance connected between SEN and Ground is measured and -displayed every second.
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  • Clicking Capacitance on IN1, measures the value of the capacitor -connected between IN1 and GND.
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  • Clicking Frequency on IN2, measures the frequency of an external -digital (TTL standard) pulse connected to IN2
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  • The shape of the waveform can be selected using the menubutton, -default shape is sine. It can be changed to triangular. When the -square wave option is selected, the output is shifted to SQ2. You -cannot have sine/triangular and SQ2 at the same time.
  • -
  • Frequency of the Waveform generator WG can be set using the slider or -the text entry window. The two input methods follow each other, -changing the slider will change the text field and entering data -using text field will set the slider to that value. The frequency -will be set to the nearest possible value and it will be displayed in -the message window at the bottom. The amplitude of WG output can be -set to 3 volts, 1 volt or 80 mV.
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  • SQ1 can be set using the same method as explained above. The duty -cycle can be set between 1% to 99%, default is 50%.
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  • The programmable volages PV1 and PV2 are also set in a similar -manner.
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  • Checkbuttons are provided to control OD1 and CCS.
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Getting Familiar with ExpEYES17

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Before proceeding with the experiments, let us do some simple exercises -to become familiar with expEYES-17. Connect the device a USB port and -start the ExpEYES-17 program from the menu ’Applications->Education’. -Enable the ’Popup Help’ option and select the first few items from the -school menu.

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The following chapters are organized according to the pulldown menus of -the eyes17 program, each chapter containing the experiments under the -corresponding menu; like School level, Eelectronics, Eelectrical etc. To -perform the expeiment, select it from the menu. Online help is available -for every experiment, making this manual almost redundant.

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The screen shots given in this document are not from the GUI program, -because the black background images are difficult to print. The plots -are generated by separate code.

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Measuring Voltage

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Objective

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Learn to measure voltage using expEYES and get some idea about the -concept of Electrical Ground. A dry-cell and two wires are required.

-_images/measure-dc.svg -

Procedure

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  • Observe the voltage at A1 displayed.
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  • Repeat by reversing the cell connections.
  • -
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Discussion

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Voltages measured value is +1.5 volts and it becomes -1.5 after -reversing the connections.

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We are measuring the potential difference between two points. One of -them can be treated as at zero volts, or Ground potential. The voltage -measuring points of expEYES measure the voltage with respect to the -terminals marked GND. We have connected the negative terminal of the -cell to Ground. The positive terminal is at +1.5 volts with respect to -the negative terminal. Will it show correct voltage if GND is not -connected ?

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Light dependent resistors

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Objective

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Learn about LDR. Measure intensity of light and its variation with -distance from the source.

-_images/ldr.svg -

Procedure

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  • Measure the LDR’s resistance, for different light intensities.
  • -
  • Iluminate LDR using a fluorescent lamp, A1 should show ripples
  • -
  • Put A1 in AC mode and measure ripple frequency
  • -
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Discussion

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The resistance vary from 1kΩ to around 100 kΩ depending on the intensity -of light falling on it. The voltage is proportional to the resistance. -The resistance decreases with intensity of light. If you use a point -source of light, the resistance should increase as the square of the -distance between the LDR and the light source.

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Voltage of a lemon cell

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Objective

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Make a voltage source by inserting Zinc and Copper plates into a lemon. -Explore the current driving capability and internal resistance.

-_images/lemon-cell.svg -

Procedure

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    -
  • Click on A1 to measure voltage
  • -
  • Measure the voltage with and without the 1k resistor
  • -
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Discussion

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Voltage across the Copper and Zinc terminals is nearly .9 volts. -Connecting the resistor reduces it to 0.33 volts. When connected, -current will start flowing through the resistor. But why is the voltage -going down ?

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What is the internal resistance of the cell ?

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Current is the flow of charges and it has to complete the path. That -means, current has to flow through the cell also. Depending on the -internal resistance of the cell, part of the voltage gets dropped inside -the cell itself. Does the same happen with a new dry-cell ?

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A simple AC generator

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Objective

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Measure the frequency and amplitude of the voltage induced across a -solenoid coil by a rotating magnet. Use the 10 mm x 10 mm magnet and the -3000T coils that comes with the kit.

-_images/ac-generator.svg -_images/ac-gen-screen.png -

Procedure

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  • Mount the magnet horizontally and power the DC motor from a 1.5 volts -cell
  • -
  • Enable A1 and A2, with analysis option
  • -
  • Set timebase to 100 mS full scale
  • -
  • Bring the coil near the magnet (not to touch it), watch the induced -voltage
  • -
  • Repeat the experiment using 2 coils.
  • -
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Discussion

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The voltage output is shown in figure. The phase difference between the -two voltages depends on the angle between the axes of the two coils.

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Bring a shorted coil near the magnet to observe the change in frequency. -The shorted coil is drawing energy from the generator and the speed get -reduced. The magnetic field in this generator is very weak. The -resistance of the coil is very high and trying to draw any current from -it will drop most of the voltage across the coil itself.

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AC Transformer

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Objective

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Demonstrate mutual induction using two coils, supplied with ExpEYES. One -coil, the primary, is connected between WG and Ground. The axes of the -coils are aligned and a ferrite core is inserted.begin_inset Separator -latexparend_inset

-_images/transformer.svg -_images/transformer-screen.png -

Procedure

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    -
  • Make connections as shown in the figure
  • -
  • Enable A1 and A2
  • -
  • Set WG to 500 Hz
  • -
  • Bring the coils close and watch the voltage on A2.
  • -
  • Try inserting an ion core
  • -
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Discussion

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The applied waveform and the induced waveform are shown in figure. A -changing magnetic filed is causing the induced voltage. In the previous -two experiments, the changing magnetic field was created by the movement -of permanent magnets. In the present case the changing magnetic field is -created by a time varying current.

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Try doing this experiment using a squarewave. Connect a 1kΩ resistor -across secondary coil to reduce ringing.

-

The concept of Alternating Current is introduced by plotting the voltage -as a function of time. The behavior of circuits elements like capacitors -and inductors in AC and DC circuits are explored, by measuring -parameters like amplitude, frequency and phase. Converting electrical -signals into sound and back is demonstrated.

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For each experiment, make connections as per the diagram given.

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- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.14.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.14.html deleted file mode 100644 index e588960fd469fea60214c945a29724a33c70d8e7..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.14.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,126 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Resistance of water, using AC — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Resistance of water, using AC

-

Objective

-

Measure the resistance of ionic solutions, using both DC and AC -voltages. We have used normal tap water. Try measuring the resistance -using a multimeter first.begin_inset Separator latexparend_inset

-_images/res-water.svg -_images/water-conduct.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • R1 should be comparable to R, start with 10k.
  • -
  • Enable A1 and A2
  • -
  • Calculate the resistance as explained in section -2.4↑
  • -
-

Discussion

-

Observed values are shown in the table. The DC and AC resistances seems -to be very different. With DC, the resistance of the liquid changes with -time, due to electrolysis and bubble formation. The resistance does not -depend much on the distance between the electrodes, the area of the -electrode is having some effect. The resistance depends on the ion -concentration and presence of impurities in the water used.

-

Try changing the distance between electrodes. Try adding some common -salt and repeat the measurements. Why is the behavior different for AC -and DC ? What are the charge carriers responsible for the flow of -electricity through solutions ? Is there any chemical reaction taking -place ?

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.15.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.15.html deleted file mode 100644 index c90ddd5966539afefe20109a248692a9e968ebbb..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.15.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,116 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Generating sound — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Generating sound

-

Objective

-

Generate sound from electrical signals, using a Piezo-electric buzzer. -Digitize sound and measure its frequency. Use the Piezo buzzer or any -other source of sound like a tuning fork.

-

Procedure

-_images/sound-generator.svg -
    -
  • Enable A1, and its analysis
  • -
  • Set WG to 1000Hz, change it and listen to the sound.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

When you change the frequency of the voltage that excites the Piezo, -both the frequency and the intesity of the sound changes. The intensity -is maximum near 3500 Hz, due to resonance. The resonant frequency of the -Piezo buzzer is decided by its size and mechanical properties.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.16.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.16.html deleted file mode 100644 index 48af702eaf1e415607fde27c0d95688e3511f120..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.16.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,120 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Digtizing sound — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Digtizing sound

-

Objective

-

Digitize sound signals from a microphone, and measure its frequency. Use -the Piezo buzzer or any other source of sound like a tuning fork.

-

Procedure

-_images/sound-capture.svg -
    -
  • Enable A1 and MIC , with analysis
  • -
  • Position the buzzer facing the microphone
  • -
  • Set WG to 1000Hz, change it and watch the MIC output
  • -
  • Use a whistle instead of the buzzer and find out the frequency of MIC -output.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The driving signal and the microphone output is shown in figure

-

Sound waves create pressure variations in the medium through which it -travel. The microphone generates a voltage proportional to the pressure. -The voltage variations are in tune with the pressure variations. You can -consider the microphone as a pressure sensor, but working only for time -varying pressures.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.17.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.17.html deleted file mode 100644 index 10d36bc0b18626430750373f152bd924aa662c7d..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.17.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,119 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Stroboscope — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Stroboscope

-

Objective

-

Observation of a periodic phenomenon with a periodic flashed light.

-

Procedure

-_images/stroboscope.svg -
    -
  • The disk is rotated by powering the motor by a 1.5 V cell.
  • -
  • The disk is illuminated with light from the LED only, no other light -should be present.
  • -
  • Adjust the frequency of SQ1, the disk will appear stationary when it -is equal to the frequency of rotation of the disk.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

When the frequency of the phenomenon under observation and the frequency -of the flashing light are matching, one can see a still image.

-

What happens when the frequency of the light is slightly increased, or slightly -decreased?

-

What happens when the frequency of the flasing light is twice the frequency -of the phenomenon? and when it is the half of its value?

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.2.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.2.html deleted file mode 100644 index 36db84a1de57ad0f5eeb5a4aab1e0ee2ecc46bf4..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.2.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,111 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Measuring Resistance — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Measuring Resistance

-

Objective

-

ExpEYES has a terminal marked SEN, that can be used for measuring -resistances in the range of 100~\Omega to 100~k\Omega. -You can also study the series and parallel combination of resistors.

-_images/res-measure.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Connect the resistor between SEN and any Ground terminal
  • -
  • Observe the value shown on the right side panel
  • -
-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.2a.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.2a.html deleted file mode 100644 index b50102742a976a7b4e2c56b92d4b254c3489ef50..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.2a.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,111 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Measuring Resistance series combination — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Measuring Resistance series combination

-

Objective

-

The effective resistance of a -series combination of resistors is R = R_1 + R_2 + ⋯.

-_images/res-series.svg -

Procedure for two resitors

-
    -
  • Connect one resistor in SEN and the other one in Ground terminal. -Connect opposite ends of the resistors together.
  • -
  • Observe the value shown on the right side panel
  • -
-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.2b.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.2b.html deleted file mode 100644 index ae81454937ef9a8398fa5f7951f4bdedbc95db4c..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.2b.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,111 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Measuring Resistance parallel combination — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Measuring Resistance parallel combination

-

Objective

-

For parallel combination of resistors, this relation exists between -the effective resistance R and the components: -\frac{1}{R} = \frac{1}{R_1} + \frac{1}{R_2} + ⋯

-_images/res-parallel.svg -

Procedure for two resistors

-
    -
  • Connect both resistors between SEN and any Ground terminal
  • -
  • Observe the value shown on the right side panel
  • -
-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.3.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.3.html deleted file mode 100644 index 4ab9f4b37805172c5e00cce5fc43c7bc2a34d57d..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.3.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,114 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Measuring Capacitance — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Measuring Capacitance

-

Objective

-

Measuring a capacitance.

-_images/cap-measure.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Connect the capacitor between IN1 and Ground.
  • -
  • Click on “Capacitance on IN1” . Should not touch the capacitor while -measuring
  • -
-

Discussion

-

We have used 100~pF capacitors in this activity.

-

You can make the capacitors by pasting thin metal foils on both sides of -insulators like paper, polythene or glass.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.3a.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.3a.html deleted file mode 100644 index eeb231fa5d63a61cb1632c6fbf2cead6797f73e1..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.3a.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,115 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Measuring Capacitance in series combination — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Measuring Capacitance in series combination

-

Objective

-

Measuring the capacitance of series combination -of capacitors.

-_images/cap-series.svg -

Procedure for two capacitors

-
    -
  • Connect one capacitor in IN1 and the second one in Ground. Connect the -opposite ends of both capacitors together.
  • -
  • Click on “Capacitance on IN1” . Should not touch the capacitor while -measuring
  • -
-

Discussion

-

For a series combination of capacitors, the effective capacitance is -given by the relation \frac{1}{C} = \frac{1}{C_1} + \frac{1}{C_2} + ⋯.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.3b.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.3b.html deleted file mode 100644 index 61dfc04e9e9e1e6bde0c133434c1cff690b96fd5..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.3b.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,114 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Measuring Capacitance of a parallel combination — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Measuring Capacitance of a parallel combination

-

Objective

-

Measuring the capacitance of a parallel combination -of capacitors.

-_images/cap-parallel.svg -

Procedure for two capacitors

-
    -
  • Connect both capacitors between IN1 and Ground.
  • -
  • Click on “Capacitance on IN1” . Should not touch the capacitor while -measuring
  • -
-

Discussion

-

For parallel combination, the effective capacitance is given by -C = C_1 + C_2 + ⋯.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.4.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.4.html deleted file mode 100644 index ab892763f294e9ea766eba1ec119f25efca0ec0e..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.4.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,124 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Measure resistance by comparison — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Measure resistance by comparison

-

Objective

-

Learn to apply Ohm’s law to find the value of an unknown resistance by -comparing it with a known one. Voltage across a resistor is given by -V = IR . If same amount of current is flowing through two different -resistors, the ratio of voltages will be the same as the ratio of -resistances, I = U_{A1}/R_2 = (U_{PV1} − U_{A1})/R_1.

-_images/res-compare.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Connect the unknown resistor R from PV1 to A1.
  • -
  • Connect 1~k\Omega (R_2) from A1 to Ground.
  • -
  • Set PV1 to 4 volts.
  • -
  • Measure voltage at A1. Calculate the current I = U_{A1}/R_2. -Value of R_1 = (U_{PV1} − U_{A1})/I.
  • -
  • Select Electrical->Plot I-V curve from the menu to get an I-V plot
  • -
-

Discussion

-

What is the limitation of this method ? How do we choose the reference -resistor ? suppose the unknown value is in M\Omega, what will be the -voltage drop across a 1~k\Omega reference resistor ? Our voltage -measurement is having a resolution of 1/4096.

-

We will use this method later to measure the resistance of solutions, -using AC.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.5.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.5.html deleted file mode 100644 index 6471468d88d4e37afe1eb5f8bd71d92e112939c8..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.5.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,118 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Direct and Alternating Currents — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Direct and Alternating Currents

-

Objective

-

Introduce the concept of time dependent voltages, using a V(t) graph. -Compare the graph of DC and AC.

-_images/ac-dc.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Set PV1 to 2 volts and Set WG to 200 Hz
  • -
  • Enable analyse on A1, to measure amplitude and frequency.
  • -
  • Enable A2
  • -
-

Discussion

-

In the plot if voltage is not changing, it is pure DC. If the voltage is -changing with time, it has an AC component. if the average voltage is -zero, it is pure DC. In the second plot, the voltage is changing from -zero to file volts, is it AC, DC or something else ???

-_images/ac-dc.png -_images/sqr-wave.png -
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.6.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.6.html deleted file mode 100644 index af7070fcca7e835005ec1c8840abc618f489bd51..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.6.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,118 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - AC mains pickup — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

AC mains pickup

-

Objective

-

Learn about the AC mains supply. Explore the phenomenon of propagation -of AC through free space.

-_images/line-pickup.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Connect a long wire to A3
  • -
  • Take one end of the wire near the AC mains line, without touching any -mains supply.
  • -
  • Enable A3, and it’s analysis.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The power line pickup is shown below, there are five cycles in 100 -milliseconds. Without making any connection, how are we getting the AC -voltage from the mains supply ? Why the voltage increaes when you touch -the end of the wire connected to A1 by hand.

-_images/pickup.png -
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.7.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.7.html deleted file mode 100644 index f86a9b6f6af583fcf2f910529d6f42164e34a55a..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.7.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,122 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Separating DC & AC components — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Separating DC & AC components

-

Objective

-

Separating AC and DC components of a voltage waveform using a capacitor.

-

Procedure

-_images/acdc-separating.svg -_images/acdc-sep-screen.png -
    -
  • Set SQR1 to 500 Hz
  • -
  • Enable A1 and A2
  • -
  • Adjust the horizontal scale to see several cycles.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The observed waveforms with and without the series capacitor are shown -in figure. The voltage is swinging between 0 and 5 volts. After passing -through the capacitor the voltage swings from -2.5 volts to +2.5 volts.

-

What will you get if you subtract a 2.5 from the y-coordinate of every -point of the first graph? That is what the capacitor did. It did not -allow the DC part to pass through. This original square wave can be -considered as a 2.5V AC superimposed on a 2.5V DC.

-

You may need to connect a resistor from A2 to GND to see a waveform -swinging between -2.5 to +2.5 volts. Remove the resistor and observe the -result.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.8.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.8.html deleted file mode 100644 index 31ebfa1cf50c42a9ea28b429b6222f1d65c22041..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.8.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,119 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Human body as a conductor — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Human body as a conductor

-

Objective

-

Touching the AC mains is fatal to us because our body is a conductor. We -can explore this using low voltage signals.

-_images/conducting-human.svg -_images/conducting-human-screen.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Set WG to 200 Hz.
  • -
  • Enable A1, A2 with analysis enabled.
  • -
  • Conenct WG and A1, with a wire
  • -
  • Connect WG and A2 through your body and note voltages
  • -
  • Repeat it using a 3 volt DC signal from PV1.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The observed peak voltage will be less than 3volts, due to the -resistance of the body. There could be some ripple due to the 50Hz AC -pickup. This can be eliminated by performing the experiment far away -from power lines, using a laptop.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.9.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.9.html deleted file mode 100644 index b177114083c7a4e7f02d2177cf52e9cec8f9d18f..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/2.9.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,120 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Resistance of human body — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Resistance of human body

-

Objective

-

Measure the resistance of human body by comparing it with a known -resistor. We start with a DC input from PV1 and then using the AC signal -from WG.

-_images/res-body.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Set PV1 to 3 volts
  • -
  • Join PV1 and A2, through your body and measure voltage at A2
  • -
  • Calculate your body’s resistance, as given in section -2.4↑
  • -
  • Repeat using SINE instead of PV1. Enable analysis on A1 and A2 to -measure voltage.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The DC measurements are affected more by the electrical noise. The AC -resistance should be less than the DC resistance. The resistance is due -to our skin and AC can pass through this, like it passes through a -capacitor.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.0.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.0.html deleted file mode 100644 index bd28e53c976d24759f23d3a255f21651c68adee5..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.0.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,182 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Four-channel oscilloscope, and much more — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Four-channel oscilloscope, and much more

-
-
Eyes17 comes with an application whose default User Interface is an -enhanced four-channel oscilloscope.
-
    -
  • Link to YouTube videos
  • -
  • The Oscilloscope program mainly functions as a four channel -oscilloscope, with inputs A1, A2, A3 and MIC.
  • -
  • Adjust the x-axis limit of the graph, using the Timebase Slider, -generally to view several cycles of the waveform.
  • -
  • If the waveform is not stable, select the proper trigger source. If -needed adjust the Trigger level.
  • -
  • The traces can be saved to a file, in text format. It is possible to -take the Fourier transform and view the frequency spectrum of the -input waveform.
  • -
  • The oscilloscope program also has control/monitor widgets on the -right side panel to access most of the ExpEYES features.
  • -
  • The inputs A1, A2, A3 and the resistance connected to SEN are -measured and displayed every second. But these readings are -meaningless when AC inputs are connected.
  • -
  • For sinusoidal AC inputs, enable the Check-Button in front of the -channel widget to view the Peak voltage and frequency.
  • -
  • The ExpEYES Input/Output terminals are briefly described below.
  • -
-
-_images/scope-outputs.png -
-
-

Output Terminals

-
    -
  • CCS: 1.1\ mA Constant Current Source. On/Off using Check-Button -Enable CCS.
  • -
  • PV1: Programmable Voltage, \pm 5\ V range. Can be set using the -Slider or Text-Entry widget
  • -
  • PV2: Similar to PV1, but ranges from - 3.3\ V to + 3.3\ V
  • -
  • SQ1: Square Wave Generator, swings from 0 to 5\ V. -Frequency can be set from 1\ Hz to 5\ kHz.
  • -
  • SQ2: Same as SQ1, but available as an option of WG.
  • -
  • OD1: Digital Output, voltage can be set to 0 or 5\ V.
  • -
  • WG: Waveform Generator. Frequency from 1\ Hz to 5\ kHz. -Amplitude can be set to 3\ V, 1\ V or 80\ mV. -Can be set to Sine, Triangular or Square. -In Square mode the output is on SQ2, with 0 to 5\ V swing.
  • -
  • -WG: Inverted output of WG
  • -
-
-_images/scope-inputs.png -
-
-
-

Input Terminals

-
    -
  • IN1: Input for measuring Capacitance. Push-Button provided for -measurement.
  • -
  • IN2: Input for measuring frequency of digital signals, swinging -between 0 and 3 to 5\ V. -Push-Button provided for measurement.
  • -
  • SEN: Input for measuring resistance. This point is internally -connected to 3.3\ V via a 5.1\ k\Omega resistor
  • -
  • A1: Voltage measurement point, functions as voltmeter and -oscilloscope. Maximum Input range \pm\ 16\ V, range is selectable -from pull down menu. AC/DC mode selection by slider switch on the -box.
  • -
  • A2: Same as A1, but no AC coupled mode
  • -
  • A3: Voltage measurement in \pm\ 3.3\ V. Small signals can -be amplified by connecting a resistance from Rg to Ground
  • -
  • MIC: Condenser microphone input, output appears as the fourth -channel of the oscilloscope
  • -
  • Rg: Gain resistor for A3. Gain = 1 + \frac{R_{g}}{100}. -For example connecting a 1\ k\Omega resistor gives a gain of -11.
  • -
-
-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.1.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.1.html deleted file mode 100644 index d6e5489ca73c534a23a19c3bc6d2c582cdd31031..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.1.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,126 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Half wave rectifier using PN junction — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Half wave rectifier using PN junction

-

Objective

-

Learn the working of a PN junction diode as a rectifier. RC filtering to -reduce the ripple (the AC component).

-_images/halfwave.svg -_images/halfwave.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Make connections and observe the output
  • -
  • Connect a 1~k\Omega load resistor, note the difference in amplitude
  • -
  • Connect a 1 \mu F capacitor, and see the filtering effect.
  • -
  • Try different values load resistors and filter capacitors
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The negative half is removed by the diode as shown in figure. Also -notice that the voltage in the positive half is reduced by around 0.7 -volts, the voltage drop across a silicon diode. A load resistor is -required for the proper operation of the circuit, it could be more than -1kΩ but do NOT use very low values since our AC source can drive only up -to 5 mA current.

-

We can see that the capacitor charges up and then during the missing -cycle it maintains the voltage. The remaining AC component is called the -ripple in the DC.

-

Can we use very large capacitance to reduce the ripple ?

-

During what part of the cycle does current flow through the diode ?

-

Amount of peak current is decided by what ?

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.10.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.10.html deleted file mode 100644 index 231a0a98ae402fa4956d5f582e06c407eb3f23fb..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.10.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,128 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Clock Divider — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Clock Divider

-

Objective

-

Study of a clock divider, using a D flip-flop (TTL family, 7474).

-

Procedure

-_images/clock-divider.svg -
    -
  • Enable A1 and A2, set range to 8 volts fullscale
  • -
  • Set SQ1 to 500 Hz
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The output toggles at every rising edge of the input, resulting in a -division of frequency by two. The output is a symmetric squarewave, -irrespective of the duty cycle of the input pulse. The HIGH output of -the TTL IC is around 4 volts only.

- --- - - - - - - -
_images/clock-divider.png -_images/clock-divider2.png -
Figure 3.1 A clock divider circuit, using a D-flipflop. Outputs for two -different types of input are shown
-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.11.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.11.html deleted file mode 100644 index fbcf9c053c394b24e05f1b549440a900743699ee..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.11.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,130 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Diode I-V characteristics — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Diode I-V characteristics

-

Objective

-

Draw the I-V Characteristic of diode and compare the result with the -theory.

-

Procedure

-_images/diode_iv.svg -_images/diode-iv-screen.png -
    -
  • Make connections
  • -
  • Click on START to draw the characteristic curve.
  • -
  • Analyse the data
  • -
  • Plot the IV of LEDs
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The IV characteristic of an ideal PN junction diode is given by equation -I = I_0 \times e^{(qU/kT) − 1}, where I_0 is the reverse saturation -current, q the charge of electron, k the Boltzmann constant, T the -temperature in Kelvin. For a practical, non-ideal, diode, the equation -is I = I_0 \times e^{(qU/nkT) − 1}, where n is the ideality factor, that -is 1 for an ideal diode. For practical diodes it varies from 1 to 2. We -have used a IN4148 silicon diode. The value of n for 1N4148 is around 2. -We have calculated the value of n by fitting the experimental data with -the equation.

-

The voltage at which LED starts emitting light depends on its wavelength -and Planck’s constant. Energy of a photon is given by E = h\nu  = hc/\lambda . -This energy is equal to the energy of an electron that overcomes the -junction barrier and is given by E = eV_0. So Planck’s constant -h = eV_0 \times \lambda / c, where \lambda is the wavelength of light from the LED, e -the charge of electron and c the velocity of light.

-

Repeat the experiment by heating the diode to different temperatures.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.12.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.12.html deleted file mode 100644 index 2bddf8d44714a8a183aaa735a6215622f7a0b0a8..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.12.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,121 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Transistor Output characteristics (CE) — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Transistor Output characteristics (CE)

-

Objective

-

Plot the output characteristic curve of a transistor. Collector is -connected to PV1 through a 1K resistor.

-_images/transistor_out.svg -_images/transistor-ce.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Set base voltage to the 1 volt and START.
  • -
  • Repeat for different base currents.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The characteristic curves for different base currents are shown in -figure. The collector current is obtained from the voltage difference -across the 1~k\Omega resistor.

-

The base current is set by setting the voltage at one end of the 100~k\Omega -resistor, the other end is connected to the transistor base. The value -of base current is calculated by, -I_b = (U_{PV2} − U_{A2})/(100 \times 10^3) \times 10^6~\mu A. -If A2 is not connected, the code assumes 0.6 volts at the base to -calculate the base current.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.13.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.13.html deleted file mode 100644 index bb9e509a86a951b853db8ebaabd3b8f3a81e4917..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.13.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,122 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Opto-electric signal transmission — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Opto-electric signal transmission

-

Objective

-

Demonstrate the transmission of signals using light. An LED is powered -by a 1kHz signal and the light is made to fall on a photo-transistor.

-_images/opto-electric.svg -_images/opto-electric-transmission.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Keep the LED facing the photo-transistor and set SQR1 to 1000Hz
  • -
  • Repeat the experiment by changing the frequency.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The SEN input is internally connected to 5 volts through a 5,1~k\Omega -resistor. The output of the photo-transistor at 1~kHz is shown in figure. -The square trace is the voltage across the LED. When the LED is ON, -photo-transistor conducts and the voltage across the collector drops to -0,2~V. When the LED is OFF the photo-transistor goes into cut off -mode and the collector shows almost the supply voltage. The rise and -fall times of the photo-transistor seem to be different. Find the upper -limit of the frequency that the given photo-transistor can respond.

-

Repeat this experiment with a Fiber Optic cable to guide the light from -LED to the photo-transistor.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.2.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.2.html deleted file mode 100644 index d0ab75d012bc6c5af051f3129b3ce097ba598202..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.2.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,118 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Fullwave rectifier using PN junctions — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Fullwave rectifier using PN junctions

-

Objective

-

Make a full wave rectifier, using two diodes. Two AC waveforms, -differing by 180 degree in phase as required. WG and WG bar provide the -same.

-_images/fullwave.svg -_images/fullwave.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Make connections
  • -
  • Enable A1, A2 and A3
  • -
  • Set WG to 200Hz and adjust timebase to view 4 to 5 cycles
  • -
-

Discussion

-

Adding capacitors to reduce the ripple is left as an exercise to the -user. This experiment is only to demonstrate the working of a full wave -rectifier, it cannot provide more than few milli amperes of current.

-

Why full-wave rectifier is superior to half-wave rectifier ?

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.3.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.3.html deleted file mode 100644 index 4a3acd3c303daffb0a4671ab161e6e25f670c743..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.3.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,114 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Clipping using PN junction diode — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Clipping using PN junction diode

-

Objective

-

Demostrate clipping of an AC signal at different levels, using a PN -junction diode

-_images/clipping.svg -_images/clipping.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Make connections and observe the output
  • -
  • Change PV1 and note the difference in the output
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The clipping level is decided by the applied DC voltage and the diode -drop.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.4.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.4.html deleted file mode 100644 index 06237c385068a815decc37a1214f177132ec374c..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.4.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,114 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Clamping using PN junction diode — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Clamping using PN junction diode

-

Objective

-

Demostrate clamping of an AC signal at different levels, using a PN -junction diode

-_images/clamping.svg -_images/clamping.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Make connections and observe the output
  • -
  • Change PV1 and note the difference in the output
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The clamping level is decided by the applied DC voltage and the diode -drop.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.5.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.5.html deleted file mode 100644 index eb00e8722e41112d4d2cf913b178e8c7bc21dcfb..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.5.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,120 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - IC555 Oscillator — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

IC555 Oscillator

-

Objective

-

Wire an astable multivibrator circuit using IC555, measure the frequency -and duty cycle of the output.

-_images/osc555.svg -_images/ic555-screen.png -

Circuit is shown in figure. The frequency is given by -f = 1 /(\ln 2 \times C \times (R_1 + 2 R_2). The HIGH time is given by -\ln 2 \times C \times (R_1 + R_2) and LOW time by -\ln 2 \times C \times R_2.

-

Procedure

-
    -
  • Make connections
  • -
  • measure frequency and duty cycle.
  • -
  • Repeat by changing the value of R1
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The output waveform is shown in figure. Change the value of resistors or -the capacitor, and compare the frequency and duty cycle with the -calculated values.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.6.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.6.html deleted file mode 100644 index 743582b50afb2a781975408da5aa6366f4e40cb6..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.6.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,115 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Inverting Amplifier — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Inverting Amplifier

-

Objective

-

Wire an Inverting amplifier using an Op-Amp and test it.

-_images/opamp-inv.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Set WG amplitude to 80 mV and frequency to 1000 Hz
  • -
  • Enable A1 and A2 and their analysis option
  • -
  • Select 1V range for both A1 and A2
  • -
  • Make connections and observe the output
  • -
  • Change gain by changing the resistor values.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The amplitude gain and and the phase difference can be observed from the -results.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.7.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.7.html deleted file mode 100644 index a0b40870c5c02a0f0d432375ba029c919e675b90..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.7.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,115 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Non-Inverting Amplifier — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Non-Inverting Amplifier

-

Objective

-

Wire an Inverting amplifier using an Op-Amp and test it.

-_images/opamp-noninv.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Set WG amplitude to 80 mV and frequency to 1000 Hz
  • -
  • Enable A1 and A2 and their analysis option
  • -
  • Select 1V range for both A1 and A2
  • -
  • Make connections and observe the output
  • -
  • Change gain by changing the resistor values.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The amplitude gain and and the phase correlation can be observed from -the results.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.8.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.8.html deleted file mode 100644 index 4f3444e9394288d86219bab961165eb5878b943c..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.8.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,115 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Op-Amp Ingrator — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Op-Amp Ingrator

-

Objective

-

Wire an Inverting amplifier using an Op-Amp and test it.

-_images/opamp-int.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Set WG amplitude to 80 mV and frequency to 1000 Hz
  • -
  • Enable A1 and A2 and their analysis option
  • -
  • Select 1V range for both A1 and A2
  • -
  • Make connections and observe the output
  • -
  • Change gain by changing the resistor values.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The amplitude gain and and the phase correlation can be observed from -the results.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.9.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.9.html deleted file mode 100644 index 53357659c13a386783630261ca7823cdac3154ae..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/3.9.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,116 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Logic gates — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Logic gates

-

Objective

-

Study of logic gates using SQ1 and PV1 as inputs, using TTL logic ICs -7408 and 7432.

-

Procedure

-_images/logic-gates.svg -
    -
  • Enable A1, A2 ands A3. Set input range on A1 and A2 to 8V
  • -
  • Set SQ1 to 200 Hz and adjust timebase to view several cycles
  • -
  • Select SQ2 from the WG wave shape, set WG to 200 Hz
  • -
  • Repeat using the OR gate, 7432
  • -
  • The 1k resistor is required to give the 5 volt signal to A3 input
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The working of the logic gate will be evident from the 3 waveforms. You -may shift traces vertically to separate them for clarity.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.1.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.1.html deleted file mode 100644 index 7cd04f3b1674e0ad631ac93092f0990e067ff8e1..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.1.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,134 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - RLC circuits, steady state response — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

RLC circuits, steady state response

-

Objective

-

Study the effect of series LCR elements in an AC circuit. Three -different combinations can be studied.

-_images/RCsteadystate.svg -_images/RLsteadystate.svg -_images/RLCsteadystate.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Make connections one by one, as per the drawing
  • -
  • Note down the amplitude and phase measurements, in each case
  • -
  • Repeat the measurements by changing the frequency.
  • -
  • For RLC series circuit, the junction of L and C is monitored by A3
  • -
  • For resonance select C = 1~\mu F, L = 10~mH and f = 1600~Hz, adjust f to -make phase shift zero
  • -
  • The total voltage across L and C together goes almost to zero, the -voltage across them are out of phase at resonance
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The applied AC voltage is measured on A1 and the voltage across the -resistor on A2. Subtracting the instantaneous values of A2 from A1 gives -the combined voltage across the inductor and capacitor. We need to use -an inductor with negligible resistance for good results. The phase -difference between current and voltage is given by -\Delta \Phi = \arctan((X_C − X_L)/X_R).

-

The total voltage, voltage across R and the voltage across LC are shown -in figure. The phasor diagram shows the phase angle between the current -and the voltage. The inductance used in this experiment is around 10~mH, -having a resistance of 20~\Omega.

-

At 1600~Hz, X_C \simeq X_L and the voltage across LC is decided by the -resistance of the inductor. At the resonant frequency, the voltage drop -across LC will be minimum, decided by the resistance of the inductor. -The input A3 is connected between L and C, so that the individual -voltage drop across L and C can be displayed.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.2.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.2.html deleted file mode 100644 index e5c98c015582e7edd0a04bc8d6bd4f496f424aca..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.2.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,124 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Transient Response of RC circuits — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Transient Response of RC circuits

-

Objective

-

Plot the voltage across a capacitor, when it is charged by applying a -voltage step through a resistor. Calculate the value of the capacitance -from the graph.

-_images/RCtransient.svg -_images/RCtransient.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • From \emphElectrical , select \emphRCTransientresponse
  • -
  • Click on 0->5V STEP and 5->0V step Buttons to plot the graphs
  • -
  • Adjust the horizontal scale, if required, and repeat.
  • -
  • Calculate RC time constant.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

Applying a 0 to 5V step makes the voltage across the capacitor to rise -exponentially as shown in the figure. By fitting the discharge curve -with U(t) = U_0 \times e^{− t/RC}, we can extract the RC time -constant and find the values of capacitance from it.

-

The voltage across a capacitor is exponential only when it is charged -trough a linear element, a resistor for example. When charged from a -constant current source, the voltage shows linear increase, because -Q = It = CV , and voltage increases linearly with time as -V = (I/C) \times t.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.3.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.3.html deleted file mode 100644 index b335622d781b706522c24c6c1f245455e0e21129..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.3.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,132 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Transient Response of RL circuits — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Transient Response of RL circuits

-

Objective

-

Explore the nature of current and voltage when a voltage step is applied -to resistor and inductor in series. By measuring the voltage across the -inductor as a function of time, we can calculate its inductance.

-_images/RLtransient.svg -_images/RLtransient.png -

In an RL circuit V = RI + L(dI/dt) and solving this will give -I = I_0 \times e^{− (R/L)t}. The coefficient of the exponential term R/L -can be extracted from the graph of voltage across the inductor. The -resistance of the inductor coil should be included in the -calculations, R = R_{ext} + R*_L.

-

Procedure

-
    -
  • Inductor is the 3000 Turn coil
  • -
  • Click on 0->5V STEP and 5->0V step Buttons to plot the graphs
  • -
  • Adjust the horizontal scale, if required, and repeat.
  • -
  • Calculate the value of inductance
  • -
  • Insert an iron core into the inductor and repeat
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The transient response of the RL circuit is shown in figure. The -exponential curve is fitted to extract the L/R value. The resistance of -the coil is measured by comparing it with the known external resistance -under DC conditions. A2 is connected to OD1 for a more accurate -measurement of the coil resistance.

-

The applied voltages are above zero, but the graph went to negative -voltages. Why ?

-

What was the current before doing the 5->0 step ? What is back EMF ?

-

Repeat with two coils in series, by (a) placing them far away (b) -placing one over the other and (c) after changing the orientation. The -effect of mutual inductance can be seen.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.4.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.4.html deleted file mode 100644 index 2f950e31ad318e7a69f4fc903241011c9f0ee33a..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.4.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,123 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Transient response of LCR circuits — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Transient response of LCR circuits

-

Objective

-

Explore the oscillatory nature of L and C in series. Resonant frequency -of series LC circuit is given by f_0 = 1/(2\pi\sqrt{LC}). The damping -factor is R/(2\sqrt{LC}), and it is equal to 1 for critical -damping (http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/RLC_circuit). Depending -upon the value of C/L and R, the response could be under-damped, -critically-damped or over-damped.

-_images/RLCtransient.svg -_images/RLC-curves.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Start with the coil and 0,1~\mu F capacitor
  • -
  • Click on 5->0V STEP. Adjust x-axis and repeat if required.
  • -
  • FIT the graph to find the resonant frequency & Damping.
  • -
  • Repeat with a resistor between OD1 and the inductor.
  • -
  • Repeat the experiment with different values of L, C and R
  • -
-

Discussion

-

We have used the 3000 turn coil and a 0,1~\mu F capacitor. The voltage -across the capacitor after a 5 to 0V step is shown in figure. The -measured resonant frequency tallies with f = 1/(2\pi\sqrt{LC}), -within the component tolerance values.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.5.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.5.html deleted file mode 100644 index d9bb3f29ce78d1544fbd493a066be3aff83ace36..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.5.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,122 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - RC Integration & Differentiation — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

RC Integration & Differentiation

-

Objective

-

RC circuits can integrate or differentiate a voltage waveform with -respect to time. A square wave is integrated to get a triangular wave -and differentiated to get spikes at the transitions.begin_inset -Separator latexparend_inset

-_images/RCintegration.svg -_images/RCsteadystate.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Select WG triangular wave option
  • -
  • Set WG to 500Hz (T = 2~ms), R = 1~k\Omega and C = 1~\mu F
  • -
  • Adjust the horizontal scale to view more than 4 cycles.
  • -
  • Repeat the same for RC differentiator, at 50~Hz.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

Integration of a triangular waveform gives parabolic shape and -differentiation gives a square shape. The differentiation can only be -shown at lower frequency. Try these for other wave shapes, for example a -squarewave. Integrating a square wave should give a triangular wave.

-_images/RCintegration.png -_images/RCdifferentiation.png -
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.6.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.6.html deleted file mode 100644 index 8444e9e425691e87bee5ce13490c42462a647687..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.6.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,126 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Fourier Analysis — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Fourier Analysis

-

Objective

-

Learn about Fourier Transform of a signal. Time and Frequency domain -representations.

-

Procedure

-
    -
  • Connect SQ1 to A1 and WG to A2. Put A1 in AC coupled mode (slide -switch on the box)
  • -
  • Enable A1 and A2, select 4 volt scale
  • -
  • Set both WG and SQ1 to 500Hz
  • -
  • Press the FFT button
  • -
-

Discussion

-

In the Fourier transform plot, frequency is on the x-axis and the y-axis -shows the relative strength of the frequency components of the signal. -This is called the frequency domain -representation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourier_transform). -For the sine wave there is only one dominant peak, the smaller ones are -a measure of distortion of the sine wave.

-

A square wave function can be represented as -f(\theta) = \sin(\theta) + \sin(3\theta)/3 + \sin(5\theta)/5 + ⋯. In the -Fourier transform of a square wave of frequency f , there will be a 3f -component (having an amplitude of one third of f ), 5f component -(amplitude one fifth) etc. as shown in the figure.

-_images/sqwaveFFT.png -_images/sinewaveFFT.png -
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.7.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.7.html deleted file mode 100644 index 0977ac3965ff8aad4346c3d042d74c1eacc41bad..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/4.7.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,121 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Electromagnetic induction — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Electromagnetic induction

-

Objective

-

Explore the voltage induced across a coil by a changing magnetic field, -by dropping a small cylindrical magnet into a coil. Use a tube to guide -the magnet through the coil.

-_images/induction.svg -_images/induction-screen.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Click on Start Scanning. A horizontal trace should appear
  • -
  • Drop the magnet through the coil, until a trace is caught.
  • -
  • Repeat the process by changing the parameters like magnet strength, -speed etc.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The result is shown in figure. The amplitude increases with the speed of -the magnet. From the graph, we can find the time taken by the magnet to -travel through the coil.

-

The second peak is bigger than the first peak. Why ? Where will be the -magnet at the zero crossing of the induced voltage? Drop the magnet from -different heights and plot the voltage vs square root of the height.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/5.1.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/5.1.html deleted file mode 100644 index 024419bc8ddbae525da12225712d18038aaab63e..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/5.1.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,115 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Frequency response of Piezo — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Frequency response of Piezo

-

Objective

-

Plot the frequency response curve of the Piezo disk by scanning through -the frequency and measuring the amplitude of the microphone output.

-_images/sound-capture.svg -_images/piezo-freq-resp.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Make the connections and keep the Mic and the Buzzer facing each -other
  • -
  • Press START button
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The Frequency Vs Amplitude plot is shown in figure. The amplitude is -maximum around 3500 Hz.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/5.2.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/5.2.html deleted file mode 100644 index 66b04f868f427cd2a514e18161458176c361b882..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/5.2.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,149 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Velocity of sound — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Velocity of sound

-

Objective

-

Calculate the velocity of sound by measuring the pressure variation with -distance. Sound travels as a series of compressions and rarefactions. -Figure (a) shows the High and Low pressure -regions along the direction of travel, along with output of a pressure -sensor at corresponding positions.

-

We can display the pressure variation at any point with respect to the -variation at the starting point. The phase of the microphone output -changes as you change its distance from the Piezo. Moving by one -wavelength changes the phase by 360 degrees. If the phase changes by X -degrees for \Delta D cm change in distance, the wavelength is given by -\lambda = (360 \times \Delta D)/X. The velocity of sound can be calculated by -multiplying the frequency with this.

- --- - - - - - - -
_images/sound_waves.png -_images/sound-velocity.svg -
-
Figure 5.1 (a) compressions et expansions along the direction of sound
-
    -
  1. schematics
  2. -
-
-
-
-

Procedure

-
    -
  • Set frequency to resonant maximum by measuring the frequency response -5.1↑
  • -
  • Keep the Piezo facing the microphone, on the same axis
  • -
  • Enable measurement
  • -
  • Adjust the distance to make both the traces in Phase
  • -
  • Change the distance to make them 180 degree out of phase, that -distance is half wave length.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

At 3500 Hz, for a 2 cm change in distance the phase changed from 176 to -102. Using the equation, -v = f \times (360 \times \Delta D)/X, v = 3500 \times (360 \times 2)/(176 − 102) = 34054~cm\cdot s^{−1}. It is important to keep the mic and the Piezo disc on the same -axis, for accurate results.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/5.3.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/5.3.html deleted file mode 100644 index badf0991075dacb6603ecbb5f5a71428d72d73b6..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/5.3.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,120 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Sound beats — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Sound beats

-

Objective

-

Study the interference of sound from two individual sources. Two Piezo -buzzers are powered by two different sources, and the sound is directed -towards the microphone.

-_images/sound-beats.svg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Set WG to 3500 Hz and SQ1 to 3600 Hz
  • -
  • Enable WG and SQ1 separately to check the MIC output
  • -
  • Adjust positions of Piezo buzzers, from the mic, to get almost same -amplitude with both
  • -
  • Select both of them to get the beat pattern
  • -
  • Press FFT to view the frequency spectrum
  • -
-

Discussion

-

From figure it can be seen how the low frequency envelope is created. -Distance between two minimum pressure points., of the envelope, -corresponds to the beat wavelength. The Fourier transform of the output -is shown in figure .

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.1.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.1.html deleted file mode 100644 index eb9997d5bb999588fdcb7781817f8781b2aeab45..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.1.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,126 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Acceleration due to gravity using Rod pendulum — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Acceleration due to gravity using Rod pendulum

-

Objective

-

Measure the period of oscillations of a rod pendulum using a light -barrier and calculate the value of acceleration due to gravity. Period -of oscillation of a uniform rod about one end is given by -T = 2\pi\sqrt{2l/3g}, where l is the length and g is the acceleration -due to gravity. The pendulum (T-shaped, a knife edge attached to a 6mm -dia rod) is made to swing between an LED and photo-transistor, connected -to expEYES. The LED and photo-transistor are mounted on a U-shaped -bracket as shown in figure.

-_images/rod-pendulum.svg -_images/light-barrier-photo.jpg -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Oscillate the pendulum and click on START
  • -
  • Repeat with different pendulum lengths.
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The time period is measured 50 times, using a 14.6cm rod pendulum, and -the average value is 0.627 seconds. The calculated value of ’g’ is -977,4~cm\cdot s^{-2}, slightly different from the actual value due to the -following reasons. The length is measured from the knife edge to the -bottom and used in the formula. But there is a small mass projecting -above the knife edge that is not included in the calculation. Another -reason is that the pendulum may not be exactly vertical in the resting -position.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.2.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.2.html deleted file mode 100644 index 0bb272e6fde77527176f3aabef775540842cb571..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.2.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,122 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Angular Velocity of Pendulum — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Angular Velocity of Pendulum

-

Objective

-

To study the nature of oscillations of a pendulum. An angle encoder is -required for measuring the angular displacement as a function of time. -But using a DC motor as a sensor, we can measure the angular velocity as -a function of time.begin_inset Separator latexparend_inset

-_images/pendulum-screen.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Attach some sort of rigid pendulum to the axis of the motor.
  • -
  • Connect the motor between A3 and GND
  • -
  • Connect 100~\Omega resistor from Rg to Ground
  • -
  • Oscillate the pendulum and START digitizing
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The observed waveform is shown in figure. Fitting it with equation -A = A_0 \sin(\omega t + \theta) \exp( − Dt) + C, using Grace gave an -angular frequency of 10~Hz.

-

The pendulum should be made with a heavy bob and a light weight rod -connecting it to the axis of the motor. In this case, the DC motor acts -like a generator and the voltage is proportional to the instantaneous -angular velocity.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.3.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.3.html deleted file mode 100644 index e82a2373ebaba4c5b5b2ab6c50a0abdde2e32ff7..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.3.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,122 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Resonance of a driven pendulum — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Resonance of a driven pendulum

-

Objective

-

Demonstrate the resonance of a driven pendulum.

-_images/driven-pendulum.svg -_images/resonance-pendulum.jpg -

Procedure

-

Make a pendulum using two button magnets and a piece of paper. Suspend -it and place the 3000T coil near that, as shown in figure.

-
    -
  • Connect the coil between SQ1 and ground
  • -
  • Calculate the resonant frequency from the length of the pendulum
  • -
  • Scan the frequency around the expected resonance frequency
  • -
-

Discussion

-

When SQ1 reaches the resonant frequency of the pendulum, the amplitude -goes up due to resonance. A 4 cm (from the center of the magnet to the -axis of oscillation) long pendulum resonated at around 2,5~Hz, almost -tallying with its calculated natural frequency. The resonant frequency -of the pendulum is given by f = 1/(2\pi\sqrt{g/l}), where l is the -distance from the center of the magnet to the point of suspension and g -is the acceleration due to gravity.

-

Repeat the experiment by changing the length of the pendulum.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.4.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.4.html deleted file mode 100644 index 4407ba799fe78c3e62e07e4f702c057ff9f1da56..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.4.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,117 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Distance Measurement, by ultrasound echo — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Distance Measurement, by ultrasound echo

-

Objective

-

Measure distance by measuring the time taken by 40~kHz pulse train to -echo from a hard surface.

-

Procedure

-_images/sr04-dist.svg -
    -
  • Keep a flat surface, like a cardboard sheet, around 10 cm from the -echo module
  • -
  • Press START
  • -
  • Change the distance with time
  • -
-

Discussion

-

The distance is calculated from the time taken by a burst of sound to -echo from the surface kept in front of the module. The distance can be -measred as function of time, enabling to calculate velocity, -acceleration etc.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.5.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.5.html deleted file mode 100644 index 1cdd1107f0fce864f94de516b8540520fd871564..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/6.5.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,129 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Temperature measurement using PT100 — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Temperature measurement using PT100

-

Objective

-

Record the temperature of a liquid by using a Platinum Resistance -Thermometer. Resistance of a PT100 element is related to the temperature -by the equation R(T) = R_0 (1 + AT + BT^2), where -A = 3,9083 \times 10^{−3} and B =  − 5,775 \times 10^{−7}.

-_images/pt100.svg -_images/pt100-screen.png -

Procedure

-
    -
  • Enter the Gain, Offset error and the Current from CCS
  • -
  • Select the temperature range and time intervals
  • -
  • Select the required parameters and press START
  • -
-

Discussion

-

Cooling curve of water is shown in figure

-

To measure the resistance of the PT100 element, we connect it from the -CCS to ground and measure the voltage across it. The actual current of -CCS should be measured using an ammeter or by measuring the voltage frop -across an known resistor. The input to A3 is amplified 11 times by -connecting 1~k\Omega resistor from Rg to Ground.

-

The resistance of PT100 is 1000~\Omega at 0^\circ C. It changes nearly 0,4~\Omega /^\circ C -, changing the voltage by 0, 4~mV. The 12 bit ADC output changes -by 1 LSB for 1,22~mV change in input voltage, hence any temperature -change less than 3 degrees will not be detected. Use an external -non-inverting amplifier to increase the resolution. The gain of the -amplifier should be such that the maximum temperature measured should -give an output less than 3.3 volts. Change the gain field entry -accordingly.

-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/7.1.html b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/7.1.html deleted file mode 100644 index b39fc02f248f5a453643262c4397238308455f69..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/7.1.html +++ /dev/null @@ -1,438 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - - - Establish Connection — eyes17 1.0 documentation - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
-
-
-
- -
-

Note

-

The GUI programs described in the previous sections are meant for a -fixed set of experiments. To develop new experiments, one should know -how to access the features of expEYES from software. Important function -calls used for communicating with the device is given below.

-
-
-

Establish Connection

-

To access the EYES17 hardware, the python modules for eyes17 must be -installed. They should be inside a directory named eyes17, that could be -in your home directory or on the Python PATH. Every program should -start with the following 2 lines

-
import eyes17.eyes
-p = eyes17.eyes.open()
-
-
-

The variable p is the software object, representing the hardware.

-

The following sections explains the Python function calls to access the -eyes17 hardware. Each function call will be explained with an example -usage.

-
-
-

set_pv1(v), set_pv2(v)

-

Sets the DC voltages at PV1 and PV2. PV1 range is -5 to 5. PV2 range is --3.3 to 3.3.

-
print p.set_pv1(4)
-print p.set_pv2(2)
-
-
-

The value set is printed. Measure the voltages using a meter.

-
-
-

get_voltage(input)

-

Returns the voltage at the specified input.

-
print p.get_voltage('A1')
-print p.get_voltage('A2')
-print p.get_voltage('A3')
-print p.get_voltage('MIC')
-print p.get_voltage('SEN')
-
-
-

Connect PV1 to A1 and use the set_pv1() and get_voltage together. This -function sets the input range by trial

-

and error, depending on the input signal.

-
-
-

get_voltage_time(input)

-

Returns a tuple, containing the computer’s time stamp and the voltage at -the specified input

-
print p.get_voltage_time('A1')
-
-
-
-
-

get_resistance()

-

Returns the value of resistance connected to SEN, it should be between -100 Ohm and 100k for reasonable accuracy.

-
print p.get_resistance()
-
-
-
-
-

get_capacitance()

-

Returns the value of capacitance connected to IN1 (works well in pF -ranges)

-
print p.get_capacitance()
-
-
-
-
-

get_version()

-

Returns the version number of the Firmware

-
print p.get_version()
-
-
-
-
-

get_temperature()

-

Returns the temperature of the processor inside eyes17

-
print p.get_temperature()
-
-
-
-
-

set_state(OUPUT=value)

-

Sets the output of OD1, SQ1 etc. Connect OD1 to A1 and run

-
p.set_state(OD1=1)
-print p.get_voltage('A1')
-
-
-
-
-

set_sine(frequency)

-

Generates the sinewave of requested frequency on WG (range from 5Hz to -5000Hz). All intermediate values are not possible, function returns the -actual value set.

-
print p.set_sine(502)
-
-
-

502.00803

-
-
-

set_sine_amp(amplitude)

-

The amplitude can be set to 3 pre-defined values of the peak voltage ( -0-> 80mV, 1-> 1V, 2-> 3V)

-
p.set_sine_amp(2)
-
-
-

Sets the amplitude to 3 volts peak.

-
-
-

set_sqr1(frequency)

-

Sets the frequency of SQ1 output (range from 4Hz to 1 MHz).All -intermediate values are not possible, function returns the actual value -set.

-
print p.set_sqr1(15030)
-
-
-

15030.53

-
-
-

set_sqr1_slow(frequency)

-

Sets the frequency of SQ1 output (range from 0.1Hz to 1 MHz).All -intermediate values are not possible, function returns the actual value -set. Resolution is high but WG is disabled when SQ1 is operated in this -mode.

-
print p.set_sqr1_slow(0.5)
-
-
-
-
-

set_sqr2(frequency)

-

Similar to set_sqr1() but SQ2 is not available along with WG, only one -at a time.

-
-
-

set_sqr1(frequency, dutyCyle)

-

Sets the frequency of SQ1 output (range from 0.1Hz to 1 MHz).All -intermediate values are not possible, function returns the actual value -set.

-
print p.set_sqr1(1000, 30)          # 1000Hz with 30% duty cycle
-
-
-
-
-

get_freq(input)

-

Measures the frequency of a square wave on the input, IN2 or SEN. -Connect SQ1 to IN2 and run the code

-
p.set_sqr1(1000)
-print p.get_freq('IN2')
-
-
-
-
-

duty_cycle(input)

-

Measures the duty cycle a square wave on the input, IN2 or SEN. Connect -SQ1 to IN2 and run the code

-
p.set_sqr1(1000, 30)
-print p.duty_cycle('IN2')
-
-
-
-
-

r2ftime(input1, input2)

-

Measures the time interval between a rising edge on input1 to another -one on input2, the inputs can be the same also. This can be tested using -a square wave.

-

Connect SQ1 to IN2 and run

-
p.set_sqr1(1000, 30)
-print p.r2ftime('IN2', 'IN2')
-
-
-

0.0003

-

The 1kHz square wave with 30% duty cycle has a Period of one millisecond -and stays HIGH for .3 milliseconds.

-
-
-

multi_r2rtime(input, numCycles)

-

Measures the time interval between rising edges on input1. Time between -2 edges is one cycle. Number of cycles to be measured also can be -specified, default value is 1. The allowed values are 1,2,4,8,12,16,32 -and 48. This can be tested using a square wave.

-

Connect SQ1 to IN2 and run

-
p.set_sqr1(1000)
-print p.multi_r2rtime('IN2', 8)
-
-
-

0.008

-
-
-

select_range(channel, range)

-

The input range of A1 and A2 can be set from ±0.5V to ±16V -fullscale, using the programmable gain amplifiers.

-
p.select_range('A1', 4)         # 4volt maximum
-p.select_range('A1', 8)         # 8 volt maximum
-
-
-
-
-

select_range(channel, range)

-

The input range of A1 and A2 can be set from ±0.5V to ±16V -fullscale, using the programmable gain amplifiers.

-
p.select_range('A1', 4)         # 4volt maximum
-p.select_range('A1', 8)         # 8 volt maximum
-
-
-
-
-

capture1(Input, Number of samples, time interval)

-

Digitizes the specified input. The number of samples could be upto -10000. The time gap between two consecutive samples id given in -microseconds (range 2 to 1000 usec).

-
print p.capture1('A1', 5, 5)
-
-
-

will print two arrays of time and voltage.

-

We need to plot the graph of the output for a better understanding. This -can be done using the matplotlib module, imported using the pylab -interface. Connect WG to A1 with a wire and run;

-
from pylab import *
-p.set_sine_amp(2)
-p.set_sine(1000)
-p.select_range('A1', 4)
-t,v = p.capture1('A1', 300, 10)
-plot(t,v)
-show()
-
-
-

The output of this code is given below.

-
-
-

capture2(Number of samples, time interval)

-

Digitizes the inputs A1 and A2 together. The number of samples could be -upto 10000. The time gap between two consecutive samples id given in -microseconds (range 2 to 1000 usec).

-

Connect WG to A1 and a diode from A1 to A2. Run the code below

-
from pylab import *
-p.set_sine_amp(2)
-p.set_sine(1000)
-p.select_range('A1', 4)
-t,v,tt,vv = p.capture2(300, 10)
-plot(t,v)
-plot(tt,vv)
-show()
-
-
-

The output of this code is given below.

-_images/halfwave.png -_images/capture4.png -
-
-

capture4(Number of samples, time interval)

-

Digitizes the inputs A1,A2,A3 and MIC together. The number of samples -could be upto 10000. The time gap between two consecutive samples id -given in microseconds (range 2 to 1000 usec).

-

Connect WG to A3 and run the code given below. Result is shown above.

-
from pylab import *
-p.set_sine_amp(2)
-p.set_sine(1000)
-p.select_range('A1', 4)
-res = p.capture4(300, 10)
-plot(res[4],res[5])        # A3
-plot(res[6],res[7])        # MIC
-show()
-
-
-
-
-

set_wave(frequency, wavetype)

-

If wavetype is not specified, it generates the waveform using the -existing wave table. If wavetype is specified (‘sine’ or ‘tria’)

-

corresponding wavetable is loaded.

-
from pylab import *
-p.set_wave(1000, 'sine')
-p.set_wave(100)       # Sets 100Hz using the existing table
-x,y = p.capture1('A1', 500,50)
-plot(x,y)
-p.set_wave(100, 'tria')  # Sets triagular wave table and generates 100Hz
-x,y = p.capture1('A1', 500,50)
-plot(x,y)
-show()
-
-
-
-
-

load_equation(function, span)

-

Makes the wave table using the quation. Connect WG to A1 and run the -code below. The output also is shown below.

-
from pylab import *
-
-def f1(x):
-    return sin(x) + sin(3*x)/3
-
-p.load_equation(f1, [-pi,pi])
-p.set_wave(400)
-x,y = p.capture1('A1', 500,10)
-plot(x,y)
-show()
-
-
-
-
-

load_table(function, span)

-

The wave table can be loaded with a 512 element array. Connect WG to A1 -and run the code below. After taking the absolute value, the table -starts with 256, goes down to zero and then goes upto 255, tracing a -triagular wave. The tableoutput also is shown above.

-
from pylab import *
-x = arange(-256, 256)
-x = abs(x)
-p.load_table(x)
-p.set_wave(400)
-x,y = p.capture1('A1', 500,10)
-plot(x,y)
-show()
-
-
-
- - -
-
-
-
-
- - - - \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCdifferentiation.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCdifferentiation.png deleted file mode 100644 index 9518abdfa18c1d3c83d9b5713a71e4286cbc61e1..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCdifferentiation.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCintegration.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCintegration.png deleted file mode 100644 index 8cd7332b1f50b234c0f576574c2c1317851b497d..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCintegration.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCintegration.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCintegration.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 755de972a078900a89d562127782d473536613d2..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCintegration.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,48 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "RCintegration.ps" Page 1 - - - -R - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -C - - - - - -WG - - -A1 - - -A2 - - -GND - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCsteadystate.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCsteadystate.svg deleted file mode 100644 index c531f13f68703adfd1156217b717f2c2135c5b59..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCsteadystate.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,48 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "RCsteadystate.ps" Page 1 - - - -R - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -C - - - - - -WG - - -A1 - - -A2 - - -GND - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCtransient.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCtransient.png deleted file mode 100644 index 63ae39ab2b1fceb58b313d6ce3586757a329568c..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCtransient.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCtransient.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCtransient.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 3cb63723187d75edf5700f2e83879d014d3624d4..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RCtransient.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,43 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "RCtransient.ps" Page 1 - - - - - - - -R - - -C - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -OD1 - - -A1 - - -GND - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLC-curves.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLC-curves.png deleted file mode 100644 index 6b91159cba1a8fec07f4d4a955fedd86283c2681..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLC-curves.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLCsteadystate.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLCsteadystate.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 1ad01e9b15e8a79bb6703c69e0795aa52427e125..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLCsteadystate.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,338 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "RLCsteadystate.ps" Page 1 - - - - L - - - R - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - WG - - - - - C - - - - - - - optional - - - - - - A1 - - - - - - A2 - - - GND - - - A3 - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLCtransient.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLCtransient.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 11b9df2c9c9c6ac0b05101fd103bf609a9513431..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLCtransient.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,52 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "RLCtransient.ps" Page 1 - - - - -L - - -C - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -OD1 - - - - - -A1 - - -GND - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLsteadystate.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLsteadystate.svg deleted file mode 100644 index e009e2177c2e56a2d2caf57860cddb44dbb24ba4..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLsteadystate.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,53 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "RLsteadystate.ps" Page 1 - - - -R - - - - - - - - - - - - -WG - - - - -L - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -A1 - - -A2 - - -GND - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLtransient.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLtransient.png deleted file mode 100644 index d2bf7b6ae35d7bc7ea2eb78ccb15d3f9532fd1db..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLtransient.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLtransient.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLtransient.svg deleted file mode 100644 index aeef1cdfe868bb8a13377ba51e9fe1366a000eb7..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/RLtransient.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,59 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "RLtransient.ps" Page 1 - - - - - - -R - - -L - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -A2 - - - - - - -OD1 - - -A1 - - -GND - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/ac-dc.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/ac-dc.png deleted file mode 100644 index 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a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/cap-measure.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,31 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "cap-measure.ps" Page 1 - - - -IN1 - - -GND - - - - -C - - - - - - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/cap-parallel.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/cap-parallel.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 73ce334ba86452c70f2d670ef3f38701afffe790..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/cap-parallel.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,193 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "cap-parallel.ps" Page 1 - - - IN1 - - - GND - - - - - C1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - C2 - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/cap-series.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/cap-series.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 0875546d6c389bbd59a99b8fa3da50e269fe189f..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/cap-series.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,38 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "cap-series.ps" Page 1 - - - -IN1 - - -GND - - - - -C1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -C2 - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/capture4.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/capture4.png deleted file mode 100644 index 6b59bfd87738777545e8b8dfb8ae42b41e2639b7..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/capture4.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/clamping.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/clamping.png deleted file mode 100644 index 16ea46097f559f0b2d8a510bcfc5a6558a33a705..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files 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and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/clipping.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/clipping.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 0678eb9f2893832157cae75de19566d9c0c91979..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/clipping.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,223 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "clipping.ps" Page 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 10 kΩ - - - - WG - - - A1 - - - A2 - - - - - - PV1 - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/clock-divider.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/clock-divider.png deleted file mode 100644 index abdcf446ba54beeb607484c17b0ea87ec58ec743..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/clock-divider.png and /dev/null differ diff --git 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a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/diode-iv-screen.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/diode-iv-screen.png deleted file mode 100644 index c4ea92fee7064603378df654952e960a0d28affd..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/diode-iv-screen.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/diode_iv.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/diode_iv.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 331643445136d0ac7a24974543662bef6b403fc6..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/diode_iv.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,40 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "diode_iv.ps" Page 1 - - - - - - -1K - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -PV1 - - -A1 - - -GND - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/driven-pendulum.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/driven-pendulum.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 27f42a160b7714ccdd9a1680bdee1086a83c831a..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/driven-pendulum.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,168 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "driven-pendulum.ps" Page 1 - - - - - - - - SQ1 - - - GND - - - - - - - Coil - - - - Magnet - - - Button - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/eyes17-panel.jpg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/eyes17-panel.jpg deleted file mode 100644 index d003a4b61f834fe22efe3fda59995685baad6053..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/eyes17-panel.jpg and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/fullwave.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/fullwave.png 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b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/math/ff184117dc8012c2a6f1936486f04c832380d1e2.png deleted file mode 100644 index e8118d365657fc25c70ee5be54c0d02a67f62680..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/math/ff184117dc8012c2a6f1936486f04c832380d1e2.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/measure-dc.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/measure-dc.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 02bb66c5bfeb3fc5d55fb1983672a0fa930a45ce..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/measure-dc.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,129 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "measure-dc.ps" Page 1 - - - - GND - - - A1 - - - - - - - - Cell - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opamp-int.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opamp-int.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 8891f18cc709708a58051c5d0612a6e2ad99a194..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opamp-int.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,435 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "opamp-int.ps" Page 1 - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - WG - - - - - A1 - - - - A2 - - - - - - GND - - - 10 kΩ - - - 1 kΩ - - - +V - - - -V - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 6 - - - 7 - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opamp-inv.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opamp-inv.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 1b5fe54e2ad90610e8d0e30e0578f361f4d19a5f..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opamp-inv.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,409 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "opamp-inv.ps" Page 1 - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - WG - - - - - A1 - - - - A2 - - - - - - GND - - - 10 kΩ - - - 1 kΩ - - - +V - - - -V - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 6 - - - 7 - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opamp-noninv.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opamp-noninv.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 0fd3615edcf3c34d6fe0cea07f3359805f68acaa..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opamp-noninv.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,404 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "opamp-noninv.ps" Page 1 - - - - - - - + - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - WG - - - - - A1 - - - - A2 - - - - - - GND - - - 10 kΩ - - - 1 kΩ - - - +V - - - -V - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 6 - - - 7 - - - 4 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opto-electric-transmission.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opto-electric-transmission.png deleted file mode 100644 index f87f781dacff9bcd8e4371fea67e36f32b123916..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opto-electric-transmission.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opto-electric.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opto-electric.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 6626da66ecd13d96618297b552226a752721b6b1..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/opto-electric.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,301 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "opto-electric.ps" Page 1 - - - SQ1 - - - GND - - - SEN - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - LED - - - - - - - - Photo - - - transistor - - - - - - - A1 - - - A2 - - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/osc555.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/osc555.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 6e2af230354cbfb9b50010c4fe61dbbde2dde04d..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/osc555.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,487 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "osc555.ps" Page 1 - - - - - - - 8 - - - 4 - - - 7 - - - 6 - - - 2 - - - 3 - - - 5 - - - 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - IC555 - - - - - - 5V - - - - - - - - - A1 - - - IN2 - - - - - - GND - - - A2 - - - 0.1 µF - - - 1 µF - - - - - - 10 kΩ - - - 10 kΩ - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pendulum-screen.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pendulum-screen.png deleted file mode 100644 index 3666edbe4ae2d8e2ecfe84fe9980c3fa6a75ccd2..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pendulum-screen.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pickup.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pickup.png deleted file mode 100644 index d2305b1f3c58870664f23b533e2445d3b55f4f15..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pickup.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/piezo-freq-resp.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/piezo-freq-resp.png deleted file mode 100644 index b3bc86c4a8f5334f1f3920ce6af7bda8b0f60aa7..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/piezo-freq-resp.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pt100-screen.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pt100-screen.png deleted file mode 100644 index 213edc592961816d9e11f0db0be2503239fc7f94..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pt100-screen.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pt100.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pt100.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 21251aa43ba42f2996cbb375cff1ed9dc576eb6c..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/pt100.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,198 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "pt100.ps" Page 1 - - - PT100 - - - - Rg - - - A3 - - - CCS - - - GND - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 1 kΩ - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-body.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-body.svg deleted file mode 100644 index ee28c23f5f054bc031c8efd16ebd7aa01d42dfeb..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-body.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,215 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "res-body.ps" Page 1 - - - A1 - - - A2 - - - GND - - - - - - - - - - 100 kΩ - - - PV1 - - - - - - - - hand - - - - - - hand - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-compare.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-compare.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 0d6d2158b42324cd5c2cb21f44a998f7ed92278b..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-compare.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,42 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "res-compare.ps" Page 1 - - - -A1 - - -PV1 - - -GND - - - - - - - - - - - -R1 - - -R2 - - - - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-measure.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-measure.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 107c1895d4a655fa778350f6aa54a20e7c35c76c..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-measure.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,30 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "res-measure.ps" Page 1 - - - -SEN - - -GND - - - - - - - -R - - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-parallel.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-parallel.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 0d6badbd1f376a4217522e7f69180919f792cfb2..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-parallel.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,38 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "res-parallel.ps" Page 1 - - - -SEN - - -GND - - - - - - - -R1 - - - - - - - - -R2 - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-series.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-series.svg deleted file mode 100644 index d0a10e10d5c0c6c85e63324469fc9d5e4710572e..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-series.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,36 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "res-series.ps" Page 1 - - - -SEN - - -GND - - - - - - - -R1 - - - - - - - - -R2 - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-water.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-water.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 026069a54d9f7dea51143ffbea79296024801d2d..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/res-water.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,223 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "res-water.ps" Page 1 - - - Water - - - - - WG - - - - - A2 - - - - - - - - R - - - R1 - - - A1 - - - - - - GND - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/resonance-pendulum.jpg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/resonance-pendulum.jpg deleted file mode 100644 index 5986604eadcded471ab981dd01139401655bf214..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/resonance-pendulum.jpg and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/rod-pendulum.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/rod-pendulum.svg deleted file mode 100644 index bbbdc5f4882729c5cf77a7e1e065197746d479f1..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/rod-pendulum.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,280 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "rod-pendulum.ps" Page 1 - - - SQ1 - - - GND - - - SEN - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - LED - - - - - - - - - Photo - - - transistor - - - - - - - - - Pendulum - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/scope-inputs.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/scope-inputs.png deleted file mode 100644 index 3869ef42301b6eb08573598e2cb50897b670ca73..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/scope-inputs.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/scope-outputs.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/scope-outputs.png deleted file mode 100644 index 3521edad2b6d2b58cff57a293e99c6eca4c80f47..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/scope-outputs.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/scope17.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/scope17.png deleted file mode 100644 index e2d2b99ed17226083108f8ba325566dda06d3f3f..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/scope17.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sinewaveFFT.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sinewaveFFT.png deleted file mode 100644 index a7bc73245f4079156705249429f191556c9cf9c6..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sinewaveFFT.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-beats.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-beats.svg deleted file mode 100644 index ce38c668cc64283ed13d23bc015cb9fa087b8edd..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-beats.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,223 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "sound-beats.ps" Page 1 - - - WG - - - GND - - - Piezo 1 - - - SQ1 - - - Piezo 2 - - - - - MIC - - - - GND - - - - - Microphone - - - - - - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-capture.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-capture.svg deleted file mode 100644 index e5b1bf958e902c5d08a59d4decab1d579e3c2439..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-capture.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,163 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "sound-capture.ps" Page 1 - - - GND - - - - - MIC - - - Microphone - - - - - - - Sound source - - - Whistle, buzzer, ... - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-generator.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-generator.svg deleted file mode 100644 index b5216e83a99610462aaf671db5eb6279214971bd..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-generator.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,137 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "sound-generator.ps" Page 1 - - - WG - - - GND - - - - - - - Disk - - - Piezo - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-velocity.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-velocity.svg deleted file mode 100644 index b7d9dce2fd0fd3189b24a7bbd22c638914cc3b74..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound-velocity.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,221 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "sound-velocity.ps" Page 1 - - - WG - - - GND - - - MIC - - - - - - - - - - - GND - - - - Microphone - - - - - - - A1 - - - - Piezo - - - Buzzer - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound_waves.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound_waves.png deleted file mode 100644 index 64d142bd9d596fbb5692ff27d50ce5ad09af7800..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sound_waves.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sqr-wave.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sqr-wave.png deleted file mode 100644 index 99712f280b8f06ebf60f8b5f76a6c7dd8657067e..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sqr-wave.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sqwaveFFT.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sqwaveFFT.png deleted file mode 100644 index dda98639b042732cde5978debf3d5ba3079e1112..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sqwaveFFT.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sr04-dist.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sr04-dist.svg deleted file mode 100644 index d91b99a6c31147be93451f705b3f0aa7d7b6c6ab..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/sr04-dist.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,52 +0,0 @@ - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "sr04-dist.ps" Page 1 - - - - -HY-SR04 - - -+5V - - -GND - - -TRIG - - -ECHO - - -5V - - -GND - - - - - -SQ2 - - - -IN2 - - - - - - - - - - - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/stroboscope.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/stroboscope.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 7c04bd00a62e65de50ee0a75c11e14bd0c0700df..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/stroboscope.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,195 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "stroboscope.ps" Page 1 - - - SQ1 - - - - - - - GND - - - - - - - - - - - - - Motor - - - Disk - - - - LED - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transformer-screen.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transformer-screen.png deleted file mode 100644 index 9588d37f1fc89581eb0726f1caa44b207708f660..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transformer-screen.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transformer.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transformer.svg deleted file mode 100644 index ab60a707c11e03b0af74c50265a6a016809a334f..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transformer.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,304 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "transformer.ps" Page 1 - - - WG - - - - - - A1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - A2 - - - - - - - - - - GND - - - - - - - - - - Coil 2 - - - Coil 1 - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transistor-ce.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transistor-ce.png deleted file mode 100644 index b4d2b4a52fcb5c2722fda3c98cc07e72fc48b23b..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transistor-ce.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transistor_out.svg b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transistor_out.svg deleted file mode 100644 index 9cf41d57713a9a6e23532fdb9edf6f7ad5d8a8f8..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/transistor_out.svg +++ /dev/null @@ -1,296 +0,0 @@ - - - - - - image/svg+xml - - - - - - - - -XCircuit Version 3.7 -File "npn_ce_out.ps" Page 1 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 100 kΩ - - - - PV2 - - - PV1 - - - A1 - - - GND - - - A2 - - - 1 kΩ - - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/water-conduct.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/water-conduct.png deleted file mode 100644 index 1213c70dac76db5456330a21d684799803cdf50b..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_images/water-conduct.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.1.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.1.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index cbe3b0a356bff63a0bda809481be98a2bd867f74..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.1.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,45 +0,0 @@ -.. 1.1 - -Introduction -============ - -Science is the study of the physical world by systematic observations -and experiments. Proper science education is essential for cultivating a -society where reasoning and logical thinking prevails and not -superstition and irrational beliefs. Science education is also essential -for training enough technicians, engineers and scientists for the -economy of the modern world. It is widely accepted that personal -experience in the form of experiments and observations, either carried -out by students or performed as demonstrations by teachers, are -essential to the pedagogy of science. However, almost everywhere science -is mostly taught from the text books without giving importance to -experiments, partly due to lack of equipment. As a result, most of the -students fail to correlate their classroom experience to problems -encountered in daily life. To some extent this can be corrected by -learning science based on exploration and experimenting. - -The advent of personal computers and their easy availability has opened -up a new path for making laboratory equipment. Addition of some hardware -to an ordinary computer can convert it in to a science laboratory. -Performing quick measurements with good accuracy enables one to study a -wide range of phenomena. Science experiments generally involve -measuring/controlling physical parameters like temperature, pressure, -velocity, acceleration, force, voltage, current etc. If the measured -physical property is changing rapidly, the measurements need to be -automated and a computer becomes a useful tool. For example, -understanding the variation of AC mains voltage with time requires -measuring it after every millisecond. - -The ability to perform experiments with reasonable accuracy also opens -up the possibility of research oriented science education. Students can -compare the experimental data with mathematical models and examine the -fundamental laws governing various phenomena. Research scientists do the -same with highly sophisticated equipment. The expEYES ( expEriments for -Young Engineers & Scientists) kit is designed to support a wide range of -experiments, from school to post graduate level. It also acts as a test -equipment for electronics engineers and hobbyists. The simple and open -architecture of expEYES allows the users to *develop new experiments, -without getting into the details of electronics or computer -programming*. This User’s manual describes *expEYES-17* along with -several experiments, there is also a Programmer’s manual available. - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.2.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.2.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index dfac12fb7e4ae487cdceea693b723526e4298b22..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.2.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,184 +0,0 @@ -.. 1.2 - -The equipment -============= - -ExpEYES-17 is interfaced and powered by the USB port of the computer, -and it is programmable in Python. It can function as a low frequency -oscilloscope, function generator, programmable voltage source, frequency -counter and data logger. For connecting external signals, it has two -spring loaded terminals blocks, one for output signals and another for -inputs, as shown in figure `1.1↓ <#fig:The-ExpEYES-toppanel>`__. The -software can monitor and control the voltages at these terminals. In -order to measure other parameters (like temperature, pressure etc.), we -need to convert them in to electrical signals by using appropriate -sensor elements. The accuracy of the voltage measurements is decided by -the stability of the 3.3V reference used, it is 50ppm per degree -celcius. The gain and offset errors are eliminated by initial -calibration, using a 16bit ADC. Even though our primary objective is to -do experiments, you are advised to read through the brief description of -the equipment given below. The device can be also used as a test -equipment for electrical and electronics engineering experiments. - -*IMPORTANT :* - -*The external voltages connected to ExpEYES17 must be within the allowed -limits. Inputs A1 and A2 must be within ±16 volts range and Inputs IN1 -and IN2 must be in 0 to 3.3V range. Exceeding these limits may result in -damage to the equipment. To measure higher voltages, scale them down -using resistive potential divider networks.* - -.. _fig-e17: -.. figure:: pics/eyes17-panel.* - :width: 500px - - -Figure 1.1 The ExpEYES17 top panel showing the external connections. - -External connections --------------------- - -The functions of the external connections briefly explained below. All -the black coulored terminals are at ground potential, all other voltages -are measured with respect to it. - -Outputs: -^^^^^^^^ - -Constant Current Source (CCS) : -""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -The constant current source can be switched ON and OFF under software -control. The nominal value is 1.1 mA but may vary from unit to unit, due -to component tolerances. To measure the exact value, connect an ammeter -from CCS to GND. Another method is to connect a known resistance (~1k) -and measure the voltage drop across it. The load resistor should be less -than 3k for this current source. - -Programmable Voltage (PV1) : -"""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Can be set, from software, to any value in the -5V to +5V range. The -resolution is 12 bits, implies a minimum voltage step of around 2.5 -millivolts. - -Programmable Voltage (PV2) : -"""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Can be set, from software, to any value in the -3.3V to +3.3V range. The -resolution is 12 bits. - -Square Wave SQ1: -"""""""""""""""" - -Output swings from 0 to 5 volts and frequency can be varied 4Hz to -100kHz. All intermediate values of frequency are not possible. The duty -cycle of the output is programmable. Setting frequency to 0Hz will make -the output HIGH and setting it to  − 1 will make it LOW, in both cases -the wave generation is disabled. SQR1 output has a :math:`100~\Omega` **series -resistor** inside so that it can drive LEDs directly. - -Square Wave SQ2: -"""""""""""""""" - -Output swings from 0 to 5 volts and frequency can be varied 4Hz to -100kHz. All intermediate values of frequency are not possible. The duty -cycle of the output is programmable. SQR2 is not available when WG is -active. - -Digital Output (OD1) : -"""""""""""""""""""""" - -The voltage at OD1 can be set to 0 or 5 volts, using software. - -Sine/Triangular Wave WG: -"""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Frequency can be varied from 5Hz to 5kHz. The peak value of the -amplitude can be set to 3 volts, 1.0 volt or 80 mV. Shape of the output -waveform is programmable. Using the GUI sine or triangular can be -selected. WG bar is inverted WG. - -Inputs: -^^^^^^^ - -Capacitance meter IN1: -"""""""""""""""""""""" - -Capacitance connected between IN1 and Ground can be measured. It works -better for lower capacitance values, upto 10 nanoFarads, results may not -be very accurate beyond that. - -Frequency Counter IN2: -"""""""""""""""""""""" - -Capable of measuring frequencies upto several MHz. - -Resistive Sensor Input (SEN): -""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -This is mainly meant for sensors like Light Dependent Resistor, -Thermistor, Photo-transistor etc. SEN is internally connected to 3.3 -volts through a 5.1\ k\ Ω resistor. - -:math:`\pm16\ V` Analog Inputs, A1 & A2: -""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Can measure voltage within the ±16 volts range. The input voltage range -can be selected from .5V to 16V fullscale. Voltage at these terminals -can be displayed as a function of time, giving the functionality of a -low frequency oscilloscope. The maximum sampling rate is 1 Msps -/channel. Both have an input impedance of 1\ M\ Ω . - -:math:`\pm3.3\ V` Analog Input A3: -""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Can measure voltage within the ±3.3 volts range. The input can be -amplified by connecting a resistor from Rg to Ground, gain -=1 + (Rg)/(10000). This enables displaying very small amplitude signals. -The input impedance of A3 is 10\ M\ Ω. - -Microphone input MIC: -""""""""""""""""""""" - -A condenser microphone can be connected to this terminal and the output -can be captured. - -I2C Sensor Interface: -^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - -The four connections (+5V, Ground, SCL and SDA) of the 8 terminal berg -strip supports I2C sensors. The software is capable of recognizing a -large number of commercially available I2C sensors. - -:math:`\pm\ 6\ V/10\ mA` Power supply: -^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - -The VR+ and VR- are regulated power outputs. They can supply very little -current, but good enough to power an Op-Amp. - -1.2.2 Accessory Set -------------------- - -Some accessories are provided with expEYES. - -- Pieces of wires, with pin and with crocodile clip. -- Condenser microphone with leads. -- Inductor Coil (2) : 44SWG wire on 1cm dia bobbin. Around 3000 Turns - (some may have more turns). These coils can be used for studying - inductance, electromagnetic induction etc. -- Piezo Electric Discs (2) : Resonant frequency is around 3500 Hz. Can - be energized by WG output or SQR1. Discs are enclosed in a plastic - shell that forms a cavity, that enhances the amplitude of sound - produced. -- DC Motor : Should be powered by a DC voltage less than 3 volts. -- Permanent Magnets : (a) 10mm dia & length (b) 5 mm dia & 10 mm length - (c) Button size magnets(2) -- 5mm LEDS : RED, BLUE, GREEN, WHITE -- Capacitors : 100pF, 0.1uF , 1 uF & 22uF -- Inductor : 10 mH / 20Ω, -- Resistors : 560Ω, 1k\ Ω, 2.2k\ Ω , 10k\ Ω , 51k\ Ω and 100 k\ Ω -- LDR -- Two silicon diodes (1N4148) and one 3.3 volts zener diode -- NPN Transistor( 2N2222) - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.3.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.3.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 883123aaf22c7f5dc0e5a9b61e2a1c33999033de..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.3.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,90 +0,0 @@ -.. 1.3 - -Software Installation -===================== - - -ExpEYES can run on any computer having a Python Interpreter and required -modules. The USB interface is handled by a device driver program that -presents the USB port as a Serial port to the Python programs. The -communication the expEYES is done using a library written in Python. -Programs with GUI have been written for many experiments. Eyes17 -software require the following packages - -- python-serial -- python-numpy -- python-scipy -- python-qt4 -- python-pyqtgraph - -Any GNU/Linux distributions -^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - -Download **eyes17-x.x.x.zip** (the latest version) from -**http://expeyes.in** and upzip it, and change to the newly created -folder. Issue the command - - $ sudo sh postinst # set user write permission - - $ python main.py - -You will get error messages for any missing packages that are required -for expeyes. Install them one by one and try again. Python programs -required for several experiments are in the same directory, they are -called by ’main.py’. - -Debian or Ubuntu GNU/Linux distributions -^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - -Download **eyes17-x.x.x.deb** ( the latest version) from the software -section of **http://expeyes.in** and install it using the command; - - $ sudo gdebi eyes17-x.x.x.deb - -while connected to Internet - -The package ’eyes17’ (later than version 3) does not depend on the -earlier versions of ExpEYES, like expeyes junior. During installation -gdebi will automatically dowload and install all the required packages. - -The expEYES Live CD / USB pendrive -^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - -The ISO image containing support for eyes17 can be downloaded from HERE. -Make a DVD or USB memory stick bootable using this ISO image (Download -rufus from https://rufus.akeo.ie to do this under MSWindows) - -Switch off the PC and insert the liveCD/Pendrive and switch it on. Enter -the BIOS while booting, make the CDdrive/USB hard disk as the first boot -device. A desktop will appear and you can start expEYES-17 from the menu -**Applications->Education**->ExpEYES-17. You can also start it from a -Terminal using the command: - - $ python /usr/share/expeyes/eyes17/main.py - -On MSWindows -^^^^^^^^^^^^ - -The first thing to do is to install the driver software for the USB to -serial converter IC MCP2200, available on Microchip website (also given -on expeyes website). After installing this the device will appear as a -COM port, that can be verified from the device manager of MSWindows. -After this there are two options. - -A zip file containing all the necessary things for ExpEYES is available -on the website, named eyes17win.zip. Unzip this file and run main.py -from that. By using this method you will not able to write your own -Python code to access expeyes, for that you need to install the -following - -#. Python-2.x version -#. python-serial -#. python-qt4 -#. python-pyqtgraph, -#. python-numpy -#. python-scipy - -Download the eyes17-x.x.x.zip ( take latest version) from the website. -Unzipping the files will create a directory **named eyes17**, run -**main.py** from that. - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.4.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.4.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 2b6e1c476fd6d370dfbcc671ef10944afc68385c..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.4.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,66 +0,0 @@ -.. 1.4 - -The main GUI program -==================== - -Start Applications->Education->ExpEYES-17 from the menu. A four channel -oscilloscope screen with several extra features will open as shown in -figure :ref:`the-scope17-screen`. Various experiments can be -selected from the menu. - -.. _the-scope17-screen: -.. figure:: pics/scope17.* - - The scope17 screen showing two traces - -The main window looks like a low frequency four channel oscilloscope, -with some extra features, on the right side panel. Applications for -various experiments can be selected from the pulldown menu. A brief -description of the oscilloscope program is given below. - -- Any of the four inputs (A1, A2, A3 or MIC) can be enabled using the - corresponding checkbox. The input range can be selected by clicking - on the menubutton on the right side of the checkbox. Select the - desired input range from the popup menu. -- There is another checkbox, to enable mathematical fitting of the data - using V = V\ 0\ sin(2\ πft + θ\ ) + C to show the amplitude and - frequency. -- The horizontal scale (time base) can be changed by a slider, from .5 - mS fullscale to 500 mS full scale. -- The Checkbutton **Freeze**, allows to pause and resume the - oscilloscope operation. -- The Trigger level can be set by a slider, and there is a menubutton - to select the trigger source. -- To save the traces to a file, edit the filename and click on the - **SaveTo** button. -- Clicking on **FFT** shows the frequency spectrum of all the eneabled - channels, appears on popup windows. - -In addition to the Oscilloscope, there are several measurement/control -options available on the GUI, they are explained below. - -- If selected, the voltages at the inputs A1, A2 and A3 are sampled - every second and displayed. -- The resistance connected between SEN and Ground is measured and - displayed every second. -- Clicking **Capacitance on IN1**, measures the value of the capacitor - connected between IN1 and GND. -- Clicking **Frequency on IN2**, measures the frequency of an external - digital (TTL standard) pulse connected to IN2 -- The shape of the waveform can be selected using the menubutton, - default shape is sine. It can be changed to triangular. When the - square wave option is selected, the output is shifted to SQ2. You - cannot have sine/triangular and SQ2 at the same time. -- Frequency of the Waveform generator WG can be set using the slider or - the text entry window. The two input methods follow each other, - changing the slider will change the text field and entering data - using text field will set the slider to that value. The frequency - will be set to the nearest possible value and it will be displayed in - the message window at the bottom. The amplitude of WG output can be - set to 3 volts, 1 volt or 80 mV. -- SQ1 can be set using the same method as explained above. The duty - cycle can be set between 1% to 99%, default is 50%. -- The programmable volages PV1 and PV2 are also set in a similar - manner. -- Checkbuttons are provided to control OD1 and CCS. - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.5.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.5.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 360a6246e524b9b863ebff1ceddd4a2db06f017f..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/1.5.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,21 +0,0 @@ -.. 1.5 - -Getting Familiar with ExpEYES17 -=============================== - -Before proceeding with the experiments, let us do some simple exercises -to become familiar with expEYES-17. Connect the device a USB port and -start the ExpEYES-17 program from the menu ’Applications->Education’. -Enable the ’Popup Help’ option and select the first few items from the -school menu. - -The following chapters are organized according to the pulldown menus of -the eyes17 program, each chapter containing the experiments under the -corresponding menu; like School level, Eelectronics, Eelectrical etc. To -perform the expeiment, select it from the menu. Online help is available -for every experiment, making this manual almost redundant. - -The screen shots given in this document are not from the GUI program, -because the black background images are difficult to print. The plots -are generated by separate code. - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.1.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.1.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 8a606cc2bba94a31375df4a7c2db4801b15c3aa5..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.1.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,30 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.1 - -Measuring Voltage -================= - -**Objective** - -Learn to measure voltage using expEYES and get some idea about the -concept of Electrical Ground. A dry-cell and two wires are required. - -.. image:: schematics/measure-dc.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Observe the voltage at A1 displayed. -- Repeat by reversing the cell connections. - -**Discussion** - -Voltages measured value is +1.5 volts and it becomes -1.5 after -reversing the connections. - -We are measuring the potential difference between two points. One of -them can be treated as at zero volts, or Ground potential. The voltage -measuring points of expEYES measure the voltage with respect to the -terminals marked GND. We have connected the negative terminal of the -cell to Ground. The positive terminal is at +1.5 volts with respect to -the negative terminal. *Will it show correct voltage if GND is not -connected ?* diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.10.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.10.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index f6682589b9ac7ae7e18b864e7be120a46e9baacb..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.10.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,26 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.10 - -Light dependent resistors -========================= - -**Objective** - -Learn about LDR. Measure intensity of light and its variation with -distance from the source. - -.. image:: schematics/ldr.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Measure the LDR’s resistance, for different light intensities. -- Iluminate LDR using a fluorescent lamp, A1 should show ripples -- Put A1 in AC mode and measure ripple frequency - -**Discussion** - -The resistance vary from 1kΩ to around 100 kΩ depending on the intensity -of light falling on it. The voltage is proportional to the resistance. -The resistance decreases with intensity of light. If you use a point -source of light, the resistance should increase as the square of the -distance between the LDR and the light source. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.11.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.11.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 7b0dcaf1c8c5597aef2e6820693093473d59b9ef..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.11.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,31 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.11 - -Voltage of a lemon cell -======================= - -**Objective** - -Make a voltage source by inserting Zinc and Copper plates into a lemon. -Explore the current driving capability and internal resistance. - -.. image:: schematics/lemon-cell.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Click on A1 to measure voltage -- Measure the voltage with and without the 1k resistor - -**Discussion** - -Voltage across the Copper and Zinc terminals is nearly .9 volts. -Connecting the resistor reduces it to 0.33 volts. When connected, -current will start flowing through the resistor. But why is the voltage -going down ? - -What is the internal resistance of the cell ? - -Current is the flow of charges and it has to complete the path. That -means, current has to flow through the cell also. Depending on the -internal resistance of the cell, part of the voltage gets dropped inside -the cell itself. Does the same happen with a new dry-cell ? diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.12.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.12.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 576513b10671372783b4f832147d15935d645d3f..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.12.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,36 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.12 - -A simple AC generator -===================== - -**Objective** - -Measure the frequency and amplitude of the voltage induced across a -solenoid coil by a rotating magnet. Use the 10 mm x 10 mm magnet and the -3000T coils that comes with the kit. - -.. image:: schematics/ac-generator.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/ac-gen-screen.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Mount the magnet horizontally and power the DC motor from a 1.5 volts - cell -- Enable A1 and A2, with analysis option -- Set timebase to 100 mS full scale -- Bring the coil near the magnet (not to touch it), watch the induced - voltage -- Repeat the experiment using 2 coils. - -**Discussion** - -The voltage output is shown in figure. The phase difference between the -two voltages depends on the angle between the axes of the two coils. - -Bring a shorted coil near the magnet to observe the change in frequency. -The shorted coil is drawing energy from the generator and the speed get -reduced. The magnetic field in this generator is very weak. The -resistance of the coil is very high and trying to draw any current from -it will drop most of the voltage across the coil itself. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.13.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.13.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index ccf5ecafa37394bd2a04f5985911a448be77c30b..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.13.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,43 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.13 - -AC Transformer -============== - -**Objective** - -Demonstrate mutual induction using two coils, supplied with ExpEYES. One -coil, the primary, is connected between WG and Ground. The axes of the -coils are aligned and a ferrite core is inserted.\begin_inset Separator -latexpar\end_inset - -.. image:: schematics/transformer.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/transformer-screen.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Make connections as shown in the figure -- Enable A1 and A2 -- Set WG to 500 Hz -- Bring the coils close and watch the voltage on A2. -- Try inserting an ion core - -**Discussion** - -The applied waveform and the induced waveform are shown in figure. A -changing magnetic filed is causing the induced voltage. In the previous -two experiments, the changing magnetic field was created by the movement -of permanent magnets. In the present case the changing magnetic field is -created by a time varying current. - -Try doing this experiment using a squarewave. Connect a 1kΩ resistor -across secondary coil to reduce ringing. - -The concept of Alternating Current is introduced by plotting the voltage -as a function of time. The behavior of circuits elements like capacitors -and inductors in AC and DC circuits are explored, by measuring -parameters like amplitude, frequency and phase. Converting electrical -signals into sound and back is demonstrated. - -For each experiment, make connections as per the diagram given. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.14.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.14.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 6db83635e217a875d393e806137dde07e14d3c9a..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.14.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,37 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.14 - -Resistance of water, using AC -============================= - -**Objective** - -Measure the resistance of ionic solutions, using both DC and AC -voltages. We have used normal tap water. Try measuring the resistance -using a multimeter first.\begin_inset Separator latexpar\end_inset - -.. image:: schematics/res-water.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/water-conduct.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- R1 should be comparable to R, start with 10k. -- Enable A1 and A2 -- Calculate the resistance as explained in section - `2.4↑ <#sec:Measure-resistance-by-comparison>`__ - -**Discussion** - -Observed values are shown in the table. The DC and AC resistances seems -to be very different. With DC, the resistance of the liquid changes with -time, due to electrolysis and bubble formation. The resistance does not -depend much on the distance between the electrodes, the area of the -electrode is having some effect. The resistance depends on the ion -concentration and presence of impurities in the water used. - -Try changing the distance between electrodes. Try adding some common -salt and repeat the measurements. Why is the behavior different for AC -and DC ? What are the charge carriers responsible for the flow of -electricity through solutions ? Is there any chemical reaction taking -place ? diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.15.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.15.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 4088bbe4b2af14141939aeeba7af3b9dc869ccba..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.15.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,25 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.15 - -Generating sound -================ - -**Objective** - -Generate sound from electrical signals, using a Piezo-electric buzzer. -Digitize sound and measure its frequency. Use the Piezo buzzer or any -other source of sound like a tuning fork. - -**Procedure** - -.. image:: schematics/sound-generator.svg - :width: 300px - -- Enable A1, and its analysis -- Set WG to 1000Hz, change it and listen to the sound. - -**Discussion** - -When you change the frequency of the voltage that excites the Piezo, -both the frequency and the intesity of the sound changes. The intensity -is maximum near 3500 Hz, due to resonance. The resonant frequency of the -Piezo buzzer is decided by its size and mechanical properties. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.16.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.16.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index a3bc35628cfb1bd91b3bd4258849ef0637b36afa..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.16.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,30 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.16 - -Digtizing sound -=============== - -**Objective** - -Digitize sound signals from a microphone, and measure its frequency. Use -the Piezo buzzer or any other source of sound like a tuning fork. - -**Procedure** - -.. image:: schematics/sound-capture.svg - :width: 300px - -- Enable A1 and MIC , with analysis -- Position the buzzer facing the microphone -- Set WG to 1000Hz, change it and watch the MIC output -- Use a whistle instead of the buzzer and find out the frequency of MIC - output. - -**Discussion** - -The driving signal and the microphone output is shown in figure - -Sound waves create pressure variations in the medium through which it -travel. The microphone generates a voltage proportional to the pressure. -The voltage variations are in tune with the pressure variations. You can -consider the microphone as a pressure sensor, but working only for time -varying pressures. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.17.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.17.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 76d97de13a64e758fc8945c26783b448a01851c5..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.17.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,31 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.17 - -Stroboscope -=========== - -**Objective** - -Observation of a periodic phenomenon with a periodic flashed light. - -**Procedure** - -.. image:: schematics/stroboscope.svg - :width: 300px - - -- The disk is rotated by powering the motor by a 1.5 V cell. -- The disk is illuminated with light from the LED only, no other light - should be present. -- Adjust the frequency of SQ1, the disk will appear stationary when it - is equal to the frequency of rotation of the disk. - -**Discussion** - -When the frequency of the phenomenon under observation and the frequency -of the flashing light are matching, one can see a still image. - -What happens when the frequency of the light is slightly increased, or slightly -decreased? - -What happens when the frequency of the flasing light is twice the frequency -of the phenomenon? and when it is the half of its value? diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.2.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.2.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 010238329b24b7120bc41973dc5d360b82e10712..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.2.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,18 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.2 - -Measuring Resistance -==================== - -**Objective** - -ExpEYES has a terminal marked **SEN**, that can be used for measuring -resistances in the range of :math:`100~\Omega` to :math:`100~k\Omega`. -You can also study the series and parallel combination of resistors. - -.. image:: ./schematics/res-measure.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Connect the resistor between SEN and any Ground terminal -- Observe the value shown on the right side panel diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.2a.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.2a.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 8fba3ba5680143e0dee1587f742a13cab4d196bc..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.2a.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,18 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.2 - -Measuring Resistance series combination -======================================= - -**Objective** - -The effective resistance of a -series combination of resistors is :math:`R = R_1 + R_2 + ⋯`. - -.. image:: ./schematics/res-series.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure for two resitors** - -- Connect one resistor in SEN and the other one in Ground terminal. - Connect opposite ends of the resistors together. -- Observe the value shown on the right side panel diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.2b.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.2b.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 003f64d082aa1c530793a2c1624ca2ea0614fce2..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.2b.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,16 +0,0 @@ -Measuring Resistance parallel combination -========================================= - -**Objective** - -For parallel combination of resistors, this relation exists between -the effective resistance :math:`R` and the components: -:math:`\frac{1}{R} = \frac{1}{R_1} + \frac{1}{R_2} + ⋯` - -.. image:: ./schematics/res-parallel.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure for two resistors** - -- Connect both resistors between SEN and any Ground terminal -- Observe the value shown on the right side panel diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.3.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.3.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 81d2fce3defcf46adf3c1b7645fd9fa1d9c9cf03..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.3.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,24 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.3 - -Measuring Capacitance -===================== - -**Objective** - -Measuring a capacitance. - -.. image:: schematics/cap-measure.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Connect the capacitor between IN1 and Ground. -- Click on “Capacitance on IN1” . Should not touch the capacitor while - measuring - -**Discussion** - -We have used :math:`100~pF` capacitors in this activity. - -You can make the capacitors by pasting thin metal foils on both sides of -insulators like paper, polythene or glass. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.3a.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.3a.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 75e477258c5d0b5dacadad12cd6de9de79a476d4..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.3a.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,24 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.3 - -Measuring Capacitance in series combination -=========================================== - -**Objective** - -Measuring the capacitance of series combination -of capacitors. - -.. image:: schematics/cap-series.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure for two capacitors** - -- Connect one capacitor in IN1 and the second one in Ground. Connect the - opposite ends of both capacitors together. -- Click on “Capacitance on IN1” . Should not touch the capacitor while - measuring - -**Discussion** - -For a series combination of capacitors, the effective capacitance is -given by the relation :math:`\frac{1}{C} = \frac{1}{C_1} + \frac{1}{C_2} + ⋯`. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.3b.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.3b.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index bf8c4f5aa212a96afc7ab2c2c4d74327709dec1d..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.3b.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,23 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.3 - -Measuring Capacitance of a parallel combination -=============================================== - -**Objective** - -Measuring the capacitance of a parallel combination -of capacitors. - -.. image:: schematics/cap-parallel.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure for two capacitors** - -- Connect both capacitors between IN1 and Ground. -- Click on “Capacitance on IN1” . Should not touch the capacitor while - measuring - -**Discussion** - -For parallel combination, the effective capacitance is given by -:math:`C = C_1 + C_2 + ⋯`. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.4.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.4.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index a7fbf9edddf59527eadc8896866912d913dc1b55..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.4.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,34 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.4 - -Measure resistance by comparison -================================ - -**Objective** - -Learn to apply Ohm’s law to find the value of an unknown resistance by -comparing it with a known one. Voltage across a resistor is given by -V = IR . If same amount of current is flowing through two different -resistors, the ratio of voltages will be the same as the ratio of -resistances, :math:`I = U_{A1}/R_2 = (U_{PV1} − U_{A1})/R_1`. - -.. image:: schematics/res-compare.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Connect the unknown resistor R from PV1 to A1. -- Connect :math:`1~k\Omega` (:math:`R_2`) from A1 to Ground. -- Set PV1 to 4 volts. -- Measure voltage at A1. Calculate the current :math:`I = U_{A1}/R_2`. - Value of :math:`R_1 = (U_{PV1} − U_{A1})/I`. -- Select Electrical->Plot I-V curve from the menu to get an I-V plot - -**Discussion** - -What is the limitation of this method ? How do we choose the reference -resistor ? suppose the unknown value is in :math:`M\Omega`, what will be the -voltage drop across a :math:`1~k\Omega` reference resistor ? Our voltage -measurement is having a resolution of :math:`1/4096`. - -We will use this method later to measure the resistance of solutions, -using AC. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.5.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.5.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index ef9691e5422fce5b5ee9335942fad1e3650d591e..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.5.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,30 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.5 - -Direct and Alternating Currents -=============================== - -**Objective** - -Introduce the concept of time dependent voltages, using a V(t) graph. -Compare the graph of DC and AC. - -.. image:: schematics/ac-dc.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Set PV1 to 2 volts and Set WG to 200 Hz -- Enable analyse on A1, to measure amplitude and frequency. -- Enable A2 - -**Discussion** - -In the plot if voltage is not changing, it is pure DC. If the voltage is -changing with time, it has an AC component. if the average voltage is -zero, it is pure DC. In the second plot, the voltage is changing from -zero to file volts, is it AC, DC or something else ??? - -.. image:: pics/ac-dc.png - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/sqr-wave.png - :width: 300px diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.6.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.6.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 5e48f94dc9bf10d29ebd49be2784702de198d3d3..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.6.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,29 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.6 - -AC mains pickup -=============== - -**Objective** - -Learn about the AC mains supply. Explore the phenomenon of propagation -of AC through free space. - -.. image:: schematics/line-pickup.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Connect a long wire to A3 -- Take one end of the wire near the AC mains line, without touching any - mains supply. -- Enable A3, and it’s analysis. - -**Discussion** - -The power line pickup is shown below, there are five cycles in 100 -milliseconds. Without making any connection, how are we getting the AC -voltage from the mains supply ? Why the voltage increaes when you touch -the end of the wire connected to A1 by hand. - -.. image:: pics/pickup.png - :width: 300px diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.7.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.7.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index fe206544a9fb0e7e58616064857a31ee44374ba8..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.7.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,34 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.7 - -Separating DC & AC components -============================= - -**Objective** - -Separating AC and DC components of a voltage waveform using a capacitor. - -**Procedure** - -.. image:: schematics/acdc-separating.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/acdc-sep-screen.png - :width: 300px - -- Set SQR1 to 500 Hz -- Enable A1 and A2 -- Adjust the horizontal scale to see several cycles. - -**Discussion** - -The observed waveforms with and without the series capacitor are shown -in figure. The voltage is swinging between 0 and 5 volts. After passing -through the capacitor the voltage swings from -2.5 volts to +2.5 volts. - -What will you get if you subtract a 2.5 from the y-coordinate of every -point of the first graph? That is what the capacitor did. It did not -allow the DC part to pass through. This original square wave can be -considered as a 2.5V AC superimposed on a 2.5V DC. - -You may need to connect a resistor from A2 to GND to see a waveform -swinging between -2.5 to +2.5 volts. Remove the resistor and observe the -result. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.8.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.8.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index ee092e5b81e3fd1a6a9022f76f86897b2e073396..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.8.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,29 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.8 - -Human body as a conductor -========================= - -**Objective** - -Touching the AC mains is fatal to us because our body is a conductor. We -can explore this using low voltage signals. - -.. image:: schematics/conducting-human.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/conducting-human-screen.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Set WG to 200 Hz. -- Enable A1, A2 with analysis enabled. -- Conenct WG and A1, with a wire -- Connect WG and A2 through your body and note voltages -- Repeat it using a 3 volt DC signal from PV1. - -**Discussion** - -The observed peak voltage will be less than 3volts, due to the -resistance of the body. There could be some ripple due to the 50Hz AC -pickup. This can be eliminated by performing the experiment far away -from power lines, using a laptop. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.9.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.9.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 9d160fcbee8b7539a0310a090d2cf3108e9a9853..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/2.9.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,29 +0,0 @@ -.. 2.9 - -Resistance of human body -======================== - -**Objective** - -Measure the resistance of human body by comparing it with a known -resistor. We start with a DC input from PV1 and then using the AC signal -from WG. - -.. image:: schematics/res-body.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Set PV1 to 3 volts -- Join PV1 and A2, through your body and measure voltage at A2 -- Calculate your body’s resistance, as given in section - `2.4↑ <#sec:Measure-resistance-by-comparison>`__ -- Repeat using SINE instead of PV1. Enable analysis on A1 and A2 to - measure voltage. - -**Discussion** - -The DC measurements are affected more by the electrical noise. The AC -resistance should be less than the DC resistance. The resistance is due -to our skin and AC can pass through this, like it passes through a -capacitor. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.0.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.0.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 5d911688bdaad8cf5ac8094cbb9451ebefa7e3bd..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.0.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,81 +0,0 @@ -Four-channel oscilloscope, and much more -======================================== - - Eyes17 comes with an application whose default User Interface is an - enhanced four-channel oscilloscope. - - -- `Link to YouTube videos `_ - -- The Oscilloscope program mainly functions as a four channel - oscilloscope, with inputs A1, A2, A3 and MIC. - -- Adjust the x-axis limit of the graph, using the Timebase Slider, - generally to view several cycles of the waveform. - -- If the waveform is not stable, select the proper trigger source. If - needed adjust the Trigger level. - -- The traces can be saved to a file, in text format. It is possible to - take the Fourier transform and view the frequency spectrum of the - input waveform. - -- The oscilloscope program also has control/monitor widgets on the - right side panel to access most of the ExpEYES features. - -- The inputs A1, A2, A3 and the resistance connected to SEN are - measured and displayed every second. But these readings are - meaningless when AC inputs are connected. - -- For sinusoidal AC inputs, enable the Check-Button in front of the - channel widget to view the Peak voltage and frequency. - -- The ExpEYES Input/Output terminals are briefly described below. - -.. figure:: ./images/scope-outputs.png - :width: 300px - -Output Terminals -^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - -- **CCS:** :math:`1.1\ mA` Constant Current Source. On/Off using Check-Button - Enable CCS. -- **PV1:** Programmable Voltage, :math:`\pm 5\ V` range. Can be set using the - Slider or Text-Entry widget -- **PV2:** Similar to PV1, but ranges from :math:`- 3.3\ V` to :math:`+ 3.3\ V` -- **SQ1:** Square Wave Generator, swings from :math:`0` to :math:`5\ V`. - Frequency can be set from :math:`1\ Hz` to :math:`5\ kHz`. -- **SQ2:** Same as SQ1, but available as an option of WG. -- **OD1:** Digital Output, voltage can be set to :math:`0` or :math:`5\ V`. -- **WG:** Waveform Generator. Frequency from :math:`1\ Hz` to :math:`5\ kHz`. - Amplitude can be set to :math:`3\ V`, :math:`1\ V` or :math:`80\ mV`. - Can be set to Sine, Triangular or Square. - In Square mode the output is on SQ2, with :math:`0` to :math:`5\ V` swing. -- **-WG:** Inverted output of WG - -.. figure:: ./images/scope-inputs.png - :width: 300px - -Input Terminals -^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ - - -- **IN1:** Input for measuring Capacitance. Push-Button provided for - measurement. -- **IN2:** Input for measuring frequency of digital signals, swinging - between :math:`0` and :math:`3` to :math:`5\ V`. - Push-Button provided for measurement. -- **SEN:** Input for measuring resistance. This point is internally - connected to :math:`3.3\ V` via a :math:`5.1\ k\Omega` resistor -- **A1:** Voltage measurement point, functions as voltmeter and - oscilloscope. Maximum Input range :math:`\pm\ 16\ V`, range is selectable - from pull down menu. AC/DC mode selection by slider switch on the - box. -- **A2:** Same as A1, but no AC coupled mode -- **A3:** Voltage measurement in :math:`\pm\ 3.3\ V`. Small signals can - be amplified by connecting a resistance from Rg to Ground -- **MIC:** Condenser microphone input, output appears as the fourth - channel of the oscilloscope -- **Rg:** Gain resistor for A3. :math:`Gain = 1 + \frac{R_{g}}{100}`. - For example connecting a :math:`1\ k\Omega` resistor gives a gain of - :math:`11`. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.1.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.1.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index c9c59d2ea9ebf68f71b6631675def96837d3c8a7..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.1.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,40 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.1 - -Half wave rectifier using PN junction -===================================== - -**Objective** - -Learn the working of a PN junction diode as a rectifier. RC filtering to -reduce the ripple (the AC component). - -.. image:: schematics/halfwave.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/halfwave.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Make connections and observe the output -- Connect a :math:`1~k\Omega` load resistor, note the difference in amplitude -- Connect a :math:`1 \mu F` capacitor, and see the filtering effect. -- Try different values load resistors and filter capacitors - -**Discussion** - -The negative half is removed by the diode as shown in figure. Also -notice that the voltage in the positive half is reduced by around 0.7 -volts, the voltage drop across a silicon diode. A load resistor is -required for the proper operation of the circuit, it could be more than -1kΩ but do NOT use very low values since our AC source can drive only up -to 5 mA current. - -We can see that the capacitor charges up and then during the missing -cycle it maintains the voltage. The remaining AC component is called the -ripple in the DC. - -Can we use very large capacitance to reduce the ripple ? - -During what part of the cycle does current flow through the diode ? - -Amount of peak current is decided by what ? diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.10.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.10.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 67dd34435a59a4090ae954c78a1fd714a5aaabe3..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.10.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,34 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.10 - -Clock Divider -============= - -**Objective** - -Study of a clock divider, using a D flip-flop (TTL family, 7474). - -**Procedure** - -.. image:: schematics/clock-divider.svg - :width: 300px - -- Enable A1 and A2, set range to 8 volts fullscale -- Set SQ1 to 500 Hz - -**Discussion** - -The output toggles at every rising edge of the input, resulting in a -division of frequency by two. The output is a symmetric squarewave, -irrespective of the duty cycle of the input pulse. The HIGH output of -the TTL IC is around 4 volts only. - -+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+ -|.. image:: pics/clock-divider.png | -| :width: 300px | -|.. image:: pics/clock-divider2.png | -| :width: 300px | -+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+ -|Figure 3.1 A clock divider circuit, using a D-flipflop. Outputs for two | -|different types of input are shown | -+-------------------------------------------------------------------------+ - diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.11.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.11.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 3d478a30b4dc8bd1c07fa2f97e0f2cb068e3b5ae..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.11.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,42 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.11 - -Diode I-V characteristics -========================= - -**Objective** - -Draw the I-V Characteristic of diode and compare the result with the -theory. - -**Procedure** - -.. image:: schematics/diode_iv.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/diode-iv-screen.png - :width: 300px - -- Make connections -- Click on START to draw the characteristic curve. -- Analyse the data -- Plot the IV of LEDs - -**Discussion** - -The IV characteristic of an ideal PN junction diode is given by equation -:math:`I = I_0 \times e^{(qU/kT) − 1}`, where :math:`I_0` is the reverse saturation -current, :math:`q` the charge of electron, :math:`k` the Boltzmann constant, :math:`T` the -temperature in Kelvin. For a practical, non-ideal, diode, the equation -is :math:`I = I_0 \times e^{(qU/nkT) − 1}`, where :math:`n` is the ideality factor, that -is 1 for an ideal diode. For practical diodes it varies from 1 to 2. We -have used a IN4148 silicon diode. The value of *n* for 1N4148 is around 2. -We have calculated the value of :math:`n` by fitting the experimental data with -the equation. - -The voltage at which LED starts emitting light depends on its wavelength -and Planck’s constant. Energy of a photon is given by :math:`E = h\nu  = hc/\lambda` . -This energy is equal to the energy of an electron that overcomes the -junction barrier and is given by :math:`E = eV_0`. So Planck’s constant -:math:`h = eV_0 \times \lambda / c`, where :math:`\lambda` is the wavelength of light from the LED, :math:`e` -the charge of electron and :math:`c` the velocity of light. - -Repeat the experiment by heating the diode to different temperatures. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.12.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.12.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index bca4253bb5cb0b43ac932830e6c17bbee1599f70..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.12.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,32 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.12 - -Transistor Output characteristics (CE) -====================================== - -**Objective** - -Plot the output characteristic curve of a transistor. Collector is -connected to PV1 through a 1K resistor. - -.. image:: schematics/transistor_out.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/transistor-ce.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Set base voltage to the 1 volt and START. -- Repeat for different base currents. - -**Discussion** - -The characteristic curves for different base currents are shown in -figure. The collector current is obtained from the voltage difference -across the :math:`1~k\Omega` resistor. - -The base current is set by setting the voltage at one end of the :math:`100~k\Omega` -resistor, the other end is connected to the transistor base. The value -of base current is calculated by, -:math:`I_b = (U_{PV2} − U_{A2})/(100 \times 10^3) \times 10^6~\mu A`. -If A2 is not connected, the code assumes 0.6 volts at the base to -calculate the base current. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.13.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.13.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 3429b7203e5c467b27a93f3e3822af63349e1634..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.13.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,33 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.13 - -Opto-electric signal transmission -================================= - -**Objective** - -Demonstrate the transmission of signals using light. An LED is powered -by a 1kHz signal and the light is made to fall on a photo-transistor. - -.. image:: schematics/opto-electric.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/opto-electric-transmission.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Keep the LED facing the photo-transistor and set SQR1 to 1000Hz -- Repeat the experiment by changing the frequency. - -**Discussion** - -The SEN input is internally connected to 5 volts through a :math:`5,1~k\Omega` -resistor. The output of the photo-transistor at :math:`1~kHz` is shown in figure. -The square trace is the voltage across the LED. When the LED is ON, -photo-transistor conducts and the voltage across the collector drops to -:math:`0,2~V`. When the LED is OFF the photo-transistor goes into cut off -mode and the collector shows almost the supply voltage. The rise and -fall times of the photo-transistor seem to be different. Find the upper -limit of the frequency that the given photo-transistor can respond. - -Repeat this experiment with a Fiber Optic cable to guide the light from -LED to the photo-transistor. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.2.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.2.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index f07693cfadd29f54db5f700a93c2063e8aba5763..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.2.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,29 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.2 - -Fullwave rectifier using PN junctions -===================================== - -**Objective** - -Make a full wave rectifier, using two diodes. Two AC waveforms, -differing by 180 degree in phase as required. WG and WG bar provide the -same. - -.. image:: schematics/fullwave.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/fullwave.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Make connections -- Enable A1, A2 and A3 -- Set WG to 200Hz and adjust timebase to view 4 to 5 cycles - -**Discussion** - -Adding capacitors to reduce the ripple is left as an exercise to the -user. This experiment is only to demonstrate the working of a full wave -rectifier, it cannot provide more than few milli amperes of current. - -Why full-wave rectifier is superior to half-wave rectifier ? diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.3.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.3.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 5d955d861d5662c7c3e38b387bd9c5d93048baea..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.3.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,24 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.3 - -Clipping using PN junction diode -================================ - -**Objective** - -Demostrate clipping of an AC signal at different levels, using a PN -junction diode - -.. image:: schematics/clipping.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/clipping.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Make connections and observe the output -- Change PV1 and note the difference in the output - -**Discussion** - -The clipping level is decided by the applied DC voltage and the diode -drop. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.4.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.4.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index f18c6826137850e0a5c6f1249601ecfa7932fd7b..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.4.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,24 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.4 - -Clamping using PN junction diode -================================ - -**Objective** - -Demostrate clamping of an AC signal at different levels, using a PN -junction diode - -.. image:: schematics/clamping.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/clamping.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Make connections and observe the output -- Change PV1 and note the difference in the output - -**Discussion** - -The clamping level is decided by the applied DC voltage and the diode -drop. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.5.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.5.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 6678670cd0d149fe06ebb426467bc570db7a2e6b..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.5.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,31 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.5 - -IC555 Oscillator -================ - -**Objective** - -Wire an astable multivibrator circuit using IC555, measure the frequency -and duty cycle of the output. - -.. image:: schematics/osc555.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/ic555-screen.png - :width: 300px - -Circuit is shown in figure. The frequency is given by -:math:`f = 1 /(\ln 2 \times C \times (R_1 + 2 R_2)`. The HIGH time is given by -:math:`\ln 2 \times C \times (R_1 + R_2)` and LOW time by -:math:`\ln 2 \times C \times R_2`. - -**Procedure** - -- Make connections -- measure frequency and duty cycle. -- Repeat by changing the value of R1 - -**Discussion** - -The output waveform is shown in figure. Change the value of resistors or -the capacitor, and compare the frequency and duty cycle with the -calculated values. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.6.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.6.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index a6ab255cf807ebacb41d4ca45ab20f202396168f..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.6.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,24 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.6 - -Inverting Amplifier -=================== - -**Objective** - -Wire an Inverting amplifier using an Op-Amp and test it. - -.. image:: schematics/opamp-inv.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Set WG amplitude to 80 mV and frequency to 1000 Hz -- Enable A1 and A2 and their analysis option -- Select 1V range for both A1 and A2 -- Make connections and observe the output -- Change gain by changing the resistor values. - -**Discussion** - -The amplitude gain and and the phase difference can be observed from the -results. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.7.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.7.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 928ee0f78ada4c8a03dc76d0fca72d6e8b62acce..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.7.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,24 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.7 - -Non-Inverting Amplifier -======================= - -**Objective** - -Wire an Inverting amplifier using an Op-Amp and test it. - -.. image:: schematics/opamp-noninv.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Set WG amplitude to 80 mV and frequency to 1000 Hz -- Enable A1 and A2 and their analysis option -- Select 1V range for both A1 and A2 -- Make connections and observe the output -- Change gain by changing the resistor values. - -**Discussion** - -The amplitude gain and and the phase correlation can be observed from -the results. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.8.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.8.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index dc27c7cc754693272d5ab147588fb67dafce5b77..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.8.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,24 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.8 - -Op-Amp Ingrator -=============== - -**Objective** - -Wire an Inverting amplifier using an Op-Amp and test it. - -.. image:: schematics/opamp-int.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Set WG amplitude to 80 mV and frequency to 1000 Hz -- Enable A1 and A2 and their analysis option -- Select 1V range for both A1 and A2 -- Make connections and observe the output -- Change gain by changing the resistor values. - -**Discussion** - -The amplitude gain and and the phase correlation can be observed from -the results. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.9.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.9.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 74caf0047d7cc7f2d6c869f1153cd088984ff701..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/3.9.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,25 +0,0 @@ -.. 3.9 - -Logic gates -=========== - -**Objective** - -Study of logic gates using SQ1 and PV1 as inputs, using TTL logic ICs -7408 and 7432. - -**Procedure** - -.. image:: schematics/logic-gates.svg - :width: 300px - -- Enable A1, A2 ands A3. Set input range on A1 and A2 to 8V -- Set SQ1 to 200 Hz and adjust timebase to view several cycles -- Select SQ2 from the WG wave shape, set WG to 200 Hz -- Repeat using the OR gate, 7432 -- The 1k resistor is required to give the 5 volt signal to A3 input - -**Discussion** - -The working of the logic gate will be evident from the 3 waveforms. You -may shift traces vertically to separate them for clarity. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.1.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.1.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 8fcbf3d79fd8b6c07829f6d58b1bc71d0fe04d25..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.1.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,47 +0,0 @@ -.. 4.1 - -RLC circuits, steady state response -=================================== - -**Objective** - -Study the effect of series LCR elements in an AC circuit. Three -different combinations can be studied. - -.. image:: schematics/RCsteadystate.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: schematics/RLsteadystate.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: schematics/RLCsteadystate.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Make connections one by one, as per the drawing -- Note down the amplitude and phase measurements, in each case -- Repeat the measurements by changing the frequency. -- For RLC series circuit, the junction of L and C is monitored by A3 -- For resonance select :math:`C = 1~\mu F`, :math:`L = 10~mH` and :math:`f = 1600~Hz`, adjust f to - make phase shift zero -- The total voltage across L and C together goes almost to zero, the - voltage across them are out of phase at resonance - -**Discussion** - -The applied AC voltage is measured on A1 and the voltage across the -resistor on A2. Subtracting the instantaneous values of A2 from A1 gives -the combined voltage across the inductor and capacitor. We need to use -an inductor with negligible resistance for good results. The phase -difference between current and voltage is given by -:math:`\Delta \Phi = \arctan((X_C − X_L)/X_R)`. - -The total voltage, voltage across R and the voltage across LC are shown -in figure. The phasor diagram shows the phase angle between the current -and the voltage. The inductance used in this experiment is around :math:`10~mH`, -having a resistance of :math:`20~\Omega`. - -At :math:`1600~Hz`, :math:`X_C \simeq X_L` and the voltage across LC is decided by the -resistance of the inductor. At the resonant frequency, the voltage drop -across LC will be minimum, decided by the resistance of the inductor. -The input A3 is connected between L and C, so that the individual -voltage drop across L and C can be displayed. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.2.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.2.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 22764ba8937fd67268e43a12da59c2944ed45f9c..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.2.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,35 +0,0 @@ -.. 4.2 - -Transient Response of RC circuits -================================= - -**Objective** - -Plot the voltage across a capacitor, when it is charged by applying a -voltage step through a resistor. Calculate the value of the capacitance -from the graph. - -.. image:: schematics/RCtransient.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/RCtransient.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- From **\\emphElectrical** , select **\\emphRCTransientresponse** -- Click on *0->5V STEP* and *5->0V step* Buttons to plot the graphs -- Adjust the horizontal scale, if required, and repeat. -- Calculate RC time constant. - -**Discussion** - -Applying a 0 to 5V step makes the voltage across the capacitor to rise -exponentially as shown in the figure. By fitting the discharge curve -with :math:`U(t) = U_0 \times e^{− t/RC}`, we can extract the RC time -constant and find the values of capacitance from it. - -The voltage across a capacitor is exponential only when it is charged -trough a linear element, a resistor for example. When charged from a -constant current source, the voltage shows linear increase, because -:math:`Q = It = CV` , and voltage increases linearly with time as -:math:`V = (I/C) \times t`. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.3.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.3.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 27069c25b9d0fe78e3fb6d4b94efe6680103d29b..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.3.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,46 +0,0 @@ -.. 4.3 - -Transient Response of RL circuits -================================= - -**Objective** - -Explore the nature of current and voltage when a voltage step is applied -to resistor and inductor in series. By measuring the voltage across the -inductor as a function of time, we can calculate its inductance. - -.. image:: schematics/RLtransient.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/RLtransient.png - :width: 300px - -In an RL circuit :math:`V = RI + L(dI/dt)` and solving this will give -:math:`I = I_0 \times e^{− (R/L)t}`. The coefficient of the exponential term R/L -can be extracted from the graph of voltage across the inductor. The -resistance of the inductor coil should be included in the -calculations, :math:`R = R_{ext} + R*_L`. - -**Procedure** - -- Inductor is the 3000 Turn coil -- Click on *0->5V STEP* and *5->0V step* Buttons to plot the graphs -- Adjust the horizontal scale, if required, and repeat. -- Calculate the value of inductance -- Insert an iron core into the inductor and repeat - -**Discussion** - -The transient response of the RL circuit is shown in figure. The -exponential curve is fitted to extract the L/R value. The resistance of -the coil is measured by comparing it with the known external resistance -under DC conditions. A2 is connected to OD1 for a more accurate -measurement of the coil resistance. - -The applied voltages are above zero, but the graph went to negative -voltages. Why ? - -What was the current before doing the 5->0 step ? What is back EMF ? - -Repeat with two coils in series, by (a) placing them far away (b) -placing one over the other and (c) after changing the orientation. The -effect of mutual inductance can be seen. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.4.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.4.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 47fab8fdcfbb29ca8107c62497aad22467f260e5..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.4.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,33 +0,0 @@ -.. 4.4 - -Transient response of LCR circuits -================================== - -**Objective** - -Explore the oscillatory nature of L and C in series. Resonant frequency -of series LC circuit is given by :math:`f_0 = 1/(2\pi\sqrt{LC})`. The damping -factor is :math:`R/(2\sqrt{LC})`, and it is equal to 1 for critical -damping (http://en.wikiversity.org/wiki/RLC\_circuit). Depending -upon the value of C/L and R, the response could be under-damped, -critically-damped or over-damped. - -.. image:: schematics/RLCtransient.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/RLC-curves.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Start with the coil and :math:`0,1~\mu F` capacitor -- Click on 5->0V STEP. Adjust x-axis and repeat if required. -- FIT the graph to find the resonant frequency & Damping. -- Repeat with a resistor between OD1 and the inductor. -- Repeat the experiment with different values of L, C and R - -**Discussion** - -We have used the 3000 turn coil and a :math:`0,1~\mu F` capacitor. The voltage -across the capacitor after a 5 to 0V step is shown in figure. The -measured resonant frequency tallies with :math:`f = 1/(2\pi\sqrt{LC})`, -within the component tolerance values. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.5.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.5.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 2e8a51cea3106688040e7c3822ea89c5848ed22c..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.5.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,35 +0,0 @@ -.. 4.5 - -RC Integration & Differentiation -================================ - -**Objective** - -RC circuits can integrate or differentiate a voltage waveform with -respect to time. A square wave is integrated to get a triangular wave -and differentiated to get spikes at the transitions.\begin_inset -Separator latexpar\end_inset - -.. image:: schematics/RCintegration.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: schematics/RCsteadystate.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Select WG triangular wave option -- Set WG to 500Hz (:math:`T = 2~ms`), :math:`R = 1~k\Omega` and :math:`C = 1~\mu F` -- Adjust the horizontal scale to view more than 4 cycles. -- Repeat the same for RC differentiator, at :math:`50~Hz`. - -**Discussion** - -Integration of a triangular waveform gives parabolic shape and -differentiation gives a square shape. The differentiation can only be -shown at lower frequency. Try these for other wave shapes, for example a -squarewave. Integrating a square wave should give a triangular wave. - -.. image:: pics/RCintegration.png - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/RCdifferentiation.png - :width: 300px diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.6.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.6.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 9ba7103bc3773a8e14182a6e706737bc350f3907..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.6.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,37 +0,0 @@ -.. 4.6 - -Fourier Analysis -================ - -**Objective** - -Learn about Fourier Transform of a signal. Time and Frequency domain -representations. - -**Procedure** - -- Connect SQ1 to A1 and WG to A2. Put A1 in AC coupled mode (slide - switch on the box) -- Enable A1 and A2, select 4 volt scale -- Set both WG and SQ1 to 500Hz -- Press the FFT button - -**Discussion** - -In the Fourier transform plot, frequency is on the x-axis and the y-axis -shows the relative strength of the frequency components of the signal. -This is called the frequency domain -representation (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fourier\_transform). -For the sine wave there is only one dominant peak, the smaller ones are -a measure of distortion of the sine wave. - -A square wave function can be represented as -:math:`f(\theta) = \sin(\theta) + \sin(3\theta)/3 + \sin(5\theta)/5 + ⋯`. In the -Fourier transform of a square wave of frequency f , there will be a 3\ f -component (having an amplitude of one third of f ), 5\ f component -(amplitude one fifth) etc. as shown in the figure. - -.. image:: pics/sqwaveFFT.png - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/sinewaveFFT.png - :width: 300px diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.7.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.7.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 6e169c2dbc08974ace82c2cebdecab0e87597622..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/4.7.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,32 +0,0 @@ -.. 4.7 - -Electromagnetic induction -========================= - -**Objective** - -Explore the voltage induced across a coil by a changing magnetic field, -by dropping a small cylindrical magnet into a coil. Use a tube to guide -the magnet through the coil. - -.. image:: schematics/induction.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/induction-screen.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Click on Start Scanning. A horizontal trace should appear -- Drop the magnet through the coil, until a trace is caught. -- Repeat the process by changing the parameters like magnet strength, - speed etc. - -**Discussion** - -The result is shown in figure. The amplitude increases with the speed of -the magnet. From the graph, we can find the time taken by the magnet to -travel through the coil. - -The second peak is bigger than the first peak. Why ? Where will be the -magnet at the zero crossing of the induced voltage? Drop the magnet from -different heights and plot the voltage vs square root of the height. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/5.1.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/5.1.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 93e71ad02ed0e442c9128cad86cd77d9068757f0..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/5.1.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,25 +0,0 @@ -.. 5.1 - -Frequency response of Piezo -=========================== - -**Objective** - -Plot the frequency response curve of the Piezo disk by scanning through -the frequency and measuring the amplitude of the microphone output. - -.. image:: schematics/sound-capture.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/piezo-freq-resp.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Make the connections and keep the Mic and the Buzzer facing each - other -- Press START button - -**Discussion** - -The Frequency Vs Amplitude plot is shown in figure. The amplitude is -maximum around 3500 Hz. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/5.2.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/5.2.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 1f71b9d171b0ef3907ac35a17a390988c5a516aa..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/5.2.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,47 +0,0 @@ -.. 5.2 - -Velocity of sound -================= - -**Objective** - -Calculate the velocity of sound by measuring the pressure variation with -distance. Sound travels as a series of compressions and rarefactions. -Figure `↓ <#fig:Sound-waves>`__\ (a) shows the High and Low pressure -regions along the direction of travel, along with output of a pressure -sensor at corresponding positions. - -We can display the pressure variation at any point with respect to the -variation at the starting point. The phase of the microphone output -changes as you change its distance from the Piezo. Moving by one -wavelength changes the phase by 360 degrees. If the phase changes by X -degrees for :math:`\Delta D` cm change in distance, the wavelength is given by -:math:`\lambda = (360 \times \Delta D)/X`. The velocity of sound can be calculated by -multiplying the frequency with this. - -+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ -|.. image:: pics/sound_waves.png | -| :width: 300px | -|.. image:: schematics/sound-velocity.svg | -| :width: 300px | -+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ -|Figure 5.1 (a) compressions et expansions along the direction of sound | -| (b) schematics | -+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+ - -**Procedure** - -- Set frequency to resonant maximum by measuring the frequency response - `5.1↑ <#sec:Resonance-frequency-of>`__ -- Keep the Piezo facing the microphone, on the same axis -- Enable measurement -- Adjust the distance to make both the traces in Phase -- Change the distance to make them 180 degree out of phase, that - distance is half wave length. - -**Discussion** - -At 3500 Hz, for a 2 cm change in distance the phase changed from 176 to -102. Using the equation, -:math:`v = f \times (360 \times \Delta D)/X`, :math:`v = 3500 \times (360 \times 2)/(176 − 102) = 34054~cm\cdot s^{−1}`. It is important to keep the mic and the Piezo disc on the same -axis, for accurate results. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/5.3.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/5.3.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index cd4452a3994d9e9f0e1c1892a2434942658d3ba0..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/5.3.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,29 +0,0 @@ -.. 5.3 - -Sound beats -=========== - -**Objective** - -Study the interference of sound from two individual sources. Two Piezo -buzzers are powered by two different sources, and the sound is directed -towards the microphone. - -.. image:: schematics/sound-beats.svg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Set WG to 3500 Hz and SQ1 to 3600 Hz -- Enable WG and SQ1 separately to check the MIC output -- Adjust positions of Piezo buzzers, from the mic, to get almost same - amplitude with both -- Select both of them to get the beat pattern -- Press FFT to view the frequency spectrum - -**Discussion** - -From figure it can be seen how the low frequency envelope is created. -Distance between two minimum pressure points., of the envelope, -corresponds to the beat wavelength. The Fourier transform of the output -is shown in figure . diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.1.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.1.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index c53c4ca60c469fb3b7a85e1f46d09a4d8875fed0..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.1.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,36 +0,0 @@ -.. 6.1 - -Acceleration due to gravity using Rod pendulum -=============================================== - -**Objective** - -Measure the period of oscillations of a rod pendulum using a light -barrier and calculate the value of acceleration due to gravity. Period -of oscillation of a uniform rod about one end is given by -:math:`T = 2\pi\sqrt{2l/3g}`, where :math:`l` is the length and :math:`g` is the acceleration -due to gravity. The pendulum (T-shaped, a knife edge attached to a 6mm -dia rod) is made to swing between an LED and photo-transistor, connected -to expEYES. The LED and photo-transistor are mounted on a U-shaped -bracket as shown in figure. - -.. image:: schematics/rod-pendulum.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/light-barrier-photo.jpg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Oscillate the pendulum and click on START -- Repeat with different pendulum lengths. - -**Discussion** - -The time period is measured 50 times, using a 14.6cm rod pendulum, and -the average value is 0.627 seconds. The calculated value of ’g’ is -:math:`977,4~cm\cdot s^{-2}`, slightly different from the actual value due to the -following reasons. The length is measured from the knife edge to the -bottom and used in the formula. But there is a small mass projecting -above the knife edge that is not included in the calculation. Another -reason is that the pendulum may not be exactly vertical in the resting -position. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.2.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.2.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index f5756bfba24acd4fdc8654314d67fdf95072b3fe..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.2.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,32 +0,0 @@ -.. 6.2 - -Angular Velocity of Pendulum -============================ - -**Objective** - -To study the nature of oscillations of a pendulum. An angle encoder is -required for measuring the angular displacement as a function of time. -But using a DC motor as a sensor, we can measure the angular velocity as -a function of time.\begin_inset Separator latexpar\end_inset - -.. image:: pics/pendulum-screen.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Attach some sort of rigid pendulum to the axis of the motor. -- Connect the motor between A3 and GND -- Connect :math:`100~\Omega` resistor from Rg to Ground -- Oscillate the pendulum and START digitizing - -**Discussion** - -The observed waveform is shown in figure. Fitting it with equation -:math:`A = A_0 \sin(\omega t + \theta) \exp( − Dt) + C`, using Grace gave an -angular frequency of :math:`10~Hz`. - -The pendulum should be made with a heavy bob and a light weight rod -connecting it to the axis of the motor. In this case, the DC motor acts -like a generator and the voltage is proportional to the instantaneous -angular velocity. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.3.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.3.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 04ef05a7229802574c21a3a7c5ebd6db95f3a195..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.3.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,34 +0,0 @@ -.. 6.3 - -Resonance of a driven pendulum -============================== - -**Objective** - -Demonstrate the resonance of a driven pendulum. - -.. image:: schematics/driven-pendulum.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/resonance-pendulum.jpg - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -Make a pendulum using two button magnets and a piece of paper. Suspend -it and place the 3000T coil near that, as shown in figure. - -- Connect the coil between SQ1 and ground -- Calculate the resonant frequency from the length of the pendulum -- Scan the frequency around the expected resonance frequency - -**Discussion** - -When SQ1 reaches the resonant frequency of the pendulum, the amplitude -goes up due to resonance. A 4 cm (from the center of the magnet to the -axis of oscillation) long pendulum resonated at around :math:`2,5~Hz`, almost -tallying with its calculated natural frequency. The resonant frequency -of the pendulum is given by :math:`f = 1/(2\pi\sqrt{g/l})`, where :math:`l` is the -distance from the center of the magnet to the point of suspension and :math:`g` -is the acceleration due to gravity. - -Repeat the experiment by changing the length of the pendulum. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.4.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.4.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 188aa73c4d683a067d68b049365eb11e5557faed..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.4.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,26 +0,0 @@ -.. 6.4 - -Distance Measurement, by ultrasound echo -======================================== - -**Objective** - -Measure distance by measuring the time taken by :math:`40~kHz` pulse train to -echo from a hard surface. - -**Procedure** - -.. image:: schematics/sr04-dist.svg - :width: 300px - -- Keep a flat surface, like a cardboard sheet, around 10 cm from the - echo module -- Press START -- Change the distance with time - -**Discussion** - -The distance is calculated from the time taken by a burst of sound to -echo from the surface kept in front of the module. The distance can be -measred as function of time, enabling to calculate velocity, -acceleration etc. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.5.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.5.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index 7a124ec95aeb23f46318b502a02e782a715abdcc..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/6.5.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,41 +0,0 @@ -.. 6.5 - -Temperature measurement using PT100 -=================================== - -**Objective** - -Record the temperature of a liquid by using a Platinum Resistance -Thermometer. Resistance of a PT100 element is related to the temperature -by the equation :math:`R(T) = R_0 (1 + AT + BT^2)`, where -:math:`A = 3,9083 \times 10^{−3}` and :math:`B =  − 5,775 \times 10^{−7}`. - -.. image:: schematics/pt100.svg - :width: 300px -.. image:: pics/pt100-screen.png - :width: 300px - -**Procedure** - -- Enter the Gain, Offset error and the Current from CCS -- Select the temperature range and time intervals -- Select the required parameters and press START - -**Discussion** - -Cooling curve of water is shown in figure - -To measure the resistance of the PT100 element, we connect it from the -CCS to ground and measure the voltage across it. The actual current of -CCS should be measured using an ammeter or by measuring the voltage frop -across an known resistor. The input to A3 is amplified 11 times by -connecting :math:`1~k\Omega` resistor from Rg to Ground. - -The resistance of PT100 is :math:`1000~\Omega` at :math:`0^\circ C`. It changes nearly :math:`0,4~\Omega /^\circ C` -, changing the voltage by :math:`0, 4~mV`. The 12 bit ADC output changes -by 1 LSB for :math:`1,22~mV` change in input voltage, hence any temperature -change less than 3 degrees will not be detected. Use an external -non-inverting amplifier to increase the resolution. The gain of the -amplifier should be such that the maximum temperature measured should -give an output less than 3.3 volts. Change the gain field entry -accordingly. diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/7.1.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/7.1.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index ebde29c21e484fa5ab29d8f8bd3c7835248c00ea..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/7.1.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,398 +0,0 @@ -.. note:: - - The GUI programs described in the previous sections are meant for a - fixed set of experiments. To develop new experiments, one should know - how to access the features of expEYES from software. Important function - calls used for communicating with the device is given below. - -Establish Connection -"""""""""""""""""""" - -To access the EYES17 hardware, the python modules for eyes17 must be -installed. They should be inside a directory named eyes17, that could be -in your home directory or on the Python PATH. **Every program should -start with the following 2 lines** - -.. code-block:: python - - import eyes17.eyes - p = eyes17.eyes.open() - -The variable ``p`` is the software object, representing the hardware. - -The following sections explains the Python function calls to access the -eyes17 hardware. Each function call will be explained with an example -usage. - -set_pv1(v), set_pv2(v) -"""""""""""""""""""""" - -Sets the DC voltages at PV1 and PV2. PV1 range is -5 to 5. PV2 range is --3.3 to 3.3. - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.set_pv1(4) - print p.set_pv2(2) - -The value set is printed. Measure the voltages using a meter. - -get_voltage(input) -"""""""""""""""""" - -Returns the voltage at the specified input. - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.get_voltage('A1') - print p.get_voltage('A2') - print p.get_voltage('A3') - print p.get_voltage('MIC') - print p.get_voltage('SEN') - -Connect PV1 to A1 and use the set_pv1() and get_voltage together. This -function sets the input range by trial - -and error, depending on the input signal. - -get_voltage_time(input) -""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Returns a tuple, containing the computer's time stamp and the voltage at -the specified input - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.get_voltage_time('A1') - -get_resistance() -"""""""""""""""" - -Returns the value of resistance connected to SEN, it should be between -100 Ohm and 100k for reasonable accuracy. - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.get_resistance() - -get_capacitance() -""""""""""""""""" - -Returns the value of capacitance connected to IN1 (works well in pF -ranges) - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.get_capacitance() - -get_version() -""""""""""""" - -Returns the version number of the Firmware - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.get_version() - -get_temperature() -""""""""""""""""" - -Returns the temperature of the processor inside eyes17 - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.get_temperature() - -set_state(OUPUT=value) -"""""""""""""""""""""" - -Sets the output of OD1, SQ1 etc. Connect OD1 to A1 and run - -.. code-block:: python - - p.set_state(OD1=1) - print p.get_voltage('A1') - -set_sine(frequency) -"""""""""""""""""""" - -Generates the sinewave of requested frequency on WG (range from 5Hz to -5000Hz). All intermediate values are not possible, function returns the -actual value set. - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.set_sine(502) - -502.00803 - -set_sine_amp(amplitude) -""""""""""""""""""""""" - -The amplitude can be set to 3 pre-defined values of the peak voltage ( -0-> 80mV, 1-> 1V, 2-> 3V) - -.. code-block:: python - - p.set_sine_amp(2) - -Sets the amplitude to 3 volts peak. - -set_sqr1(frequency) -""""""""""""""""""" - -Sets the frequency of SQ1 output (range from 4Hz to 1 MHz).All -intermediate values are not possible, function returns the actual value -set. - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.set_sqr1(15030) - -15030.53 - -set_sqr1_slow(frequency) -"""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Sets the frequency of SQ1 output (range from 0.1Hz to 1 MHz).All -intermediate values are not possible, function returns the actual value -set. Resolution is high but WG is disabled when SQ1 is operated in this -mode. - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.set_sqr1_slow(0.5) - -set_sqr2(frequency) -""""""""""""""""""" - -Similar to set_sqr1() but SQ2 is not available along with WG, only one -at a time. - -set_sqr1(frequency, dutyCyle) -""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Sets the frequency of SQ1 output (range from 0.1Hz to 1 MHz).All -intermediate values are not possible, function returns the actual value -set. - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.set_sqr1(1000, 30) # 1000Hz with 30% duty cycle - -get_freq(input) -""""""""""""""" - -Measures the frequency of a square wave on the input, IN2 or SEN. -Connect SQ1 to IN2 and run the code - -.. code-block:: python - - p.set_sqr1(1000) - print p.get_freq('IN2') - -duty_cycle(input) -""""""""""""""""" - -Measures the duty cycle a square wave on the input, IN2 or SEN. Connect -SQ1 to IN2 and run the code - -.. code-block:: python - - p.set_sqr1(1000, 30) - print p.duty_cycle('IN2') - -r2ftime(input1, input2) -""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Measures the time interval between a rising edge on input1 to another -one on input2, the inputs can be the same also. This can be tested using -a square wave. - -Connect SQ1 to IN2 and run - -.. code-block:: python - - p.set_sqr1(1000, 30) - print p.r2ftime('IN2', 'IN2') - -0.0003 - -The 1kHz square wave with 30% duty cycle has a Period of one millisecond -and stays HIGH for .3 milliseconds. - -multi_r2rtime(input, numCycles) -""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Measures the time interval between rising edges on input1. Time between -2 edges is one cycle. Number of cycles to be measured also can be -specified, default value is 1. The allowed values are 1,2,4,8,12,16,32 -and 48. This can be tested using a square wave. - -Connect SQ1 to IN2 and run - -.. code-block:: python - - p.set_sqr1(1000) - print p.multi_r2rtime('IN2', 8) - -0.008 - -select_range(channel, range) -"""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -The input range of A1 and A2 can be set from ±0.5\ V to ±16\ V -fullscale, using the programmable gain amplifiers. - -.. code-block:: python - - p.select_range('A1', 4) # 4volt maximum - p.select_range('A1', 8) # 8 volt maximum - -select_range(channel, range) -"""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -The input range of A1 and A2 can be set from ±0.5\ V to ±16\ V -fullscale, using the programmable gain amplifiers. - -.. code-block:: python - - p.select_range('A1', 4) # 4volt maximum - p.select_range('A1', 8) # 8 volt maximum - -capture1(Input, Number of samples, time interval) -""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Digitizes the specified input. The number of samples could be upto -10000. The time gap between two consecutive samples id given in -microseconds (range 2 to 1000 usec). - -.. code-block:: python - - print p.capture1('A1', 5, 5) - -will print two arrays of time and voltage. - -We need to plot the graph of the output for a better understanding. This -can be done using the matplotlib module, imported using the pylab -interface. Connect WG to A1 with a wire and run; - -.. code-block:: python - - from pylab import * - p.set_sine_amp(2) - p.set_sine(1000) - p.select_range('A1', 4) - t,v = p.capture1('A1', 300, 10) - plot(t,v) - show() - -The output of this code is given below. - - -capture2(Number of samples, time interval) -"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Digitizes the inputs A1 and A2 together. The number of samples could be -upto 10000. The time gap between two consecutive samples id given in -microseconds (range 2 to 1000 usec). - -Connect WG to A1 and a diode from A1 to A2. Run the code below - -.. code-block:: python - - from pylab import * - p.set_sine_amp(2) - p.set_sine(1000) - p.select_range('A1', 4) - t,v,tt,vv = p.capture2(300, 10) - plot(t,v) - plot(tt,vv) - show() - -The output of this code is given below. - -.. image:: pics/halfwave.png - :width: 400px -.. image:: pics/capture4.png - :width: 400px - -capture4(Number of samples, time interval) -"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Digitizes the inputs A1,A2,A3 and MIC together. The number of samples -could be upto 10000. The time gap between two consecutive samples id -given in microseconds (range 2 to 1000 usec). - -Connect WG to A3 and run the code given below. Result is shown above. - -.. code-block:: python - - from pylab import * - p.set_sine_amp(2) - p.set_sine(1000) - p.select_range('A1', 4) - res = p.capture4(300, 10) - plot(res[4],res[5]) # A3 - plot(res[6],res[7]) # MIC - show() - -set_wave(frequency, wavetype) -""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -If wavetype is not specified, it generates the waveform using the -existing wave table. If wavetype is specified ('sine' or 'tria') - -corresponding wavetable is loaded. - -.. code-block:: python - - from pylab import * - p.set_wave(1000, 'sine') - p.set_wave(100) # Sets 100Hz using the existing table - x,y = p.capture1('A1', 500,50) - plot(x,y) - p.set_wave(100, 'tria') # Sets triagular wave table and generates 100Hz - x,y = p.capture1('A1', 500,50) - plot(x,y) - show() - -load_equation(function, span) -""""""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -Makes the wave table using the quation. Connect WG to A1 and run the -code below. The output also is shown below. - -.. code-block:: python - - from pylab import * - - def f1(x): - return sin(x) + sin(3*x)/3 - - p.load_equation(f1, [-pi,pi]) - p.set_wave(400) - x,y = p.capture1('A1', 500,10) - plot(x,y) - show() - - - -load_table(function, span) -"""""""""""""""""""""""""" - -The wave table can be loaded with a 512 element array. Connect WG to A1 -and run the code below. After taking the absolute value, the table -starts with 256, goes down to zero and then goes upto 255, tracing a -triagular wave. The tableoutput also is shown above. - -.. code-block:: python - - from pylab import * - x = arange(-256, 256) - x = abs(x) - p.load_table(x) - p.set_wave(400) - x,y = p.capture1('A1', 500,10) - plot(x,y) - show() diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/index.rst.txt b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/index.rst.txt deleted file mode 100644 index beb91305ed1c2d1b13634a6a3efa2d59b8d8eb62..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_sources/index.rst.txt +++ /dev/null @@ -1,146 +0,0 @@ -.. eyes17 documentation master file, created by - sphinx-quickstart on Sat Jan 6 00:43:37 2018. - -Getting Started -*************** - -.. toctree:: - :maxdepth: 2 - - 1.1 - 1.2 - 1.3 - 1.4 - 1.5 - -School Level Experiments -************************ - -This chapter will discuss the experiments and demonstrations without -much data analysis, experiments given in the menu SchoolExpts. Simple -tasks like measuring voltage, resistance, capacitance etc. will be done -followed by resistances changing with temperature or light. The concept -of Alternating Current is introduced by plotting the voltage as a -function of time. Generating and digitizing sound will be covered. When -an experiment is selected, the corresponding help window will popup, if -enabled. - -.. toctree:: - :maxdepth: 2 - - 2.1 - 2.2 - 2.2a - 2.2b - 2.3 - 2.3a - 2.3b - 2.4 - 2.5 - 2.6 - 2.7 - 2.8 - 2.9 - 2.10 - 2.11 - 2.12 - 2.13 - 2.14 - 2.15 - 2.16 - 2.17 - -Electronics -*********** - -This chapter explains several electronics experiments. Most of them are -done using the oscilloscope GUI. Some of them like Diode and Transistor -characteristics have a dedicated GUI. - -.. toctree:: - :maxdepth: 2 - - 3.0 - 3.1 - 3.2 - 3.3 - 3.4 - 3.5 - 3.6 - 3.7 - 3.8 - 3.9 - 3.10 - 3.11 - 3.12 - 3.13 - -Electricity and Magnetism -************************* - -This section mainly contains experiments on the steady state and -transient response of LCR circuit elements. the experimental results -with the theory. It also gives an experiment of electromagnetic -induction. - -.. toctree:: - :maxdepth: 2 - - 4.1 - 4.2 - 4.3 - 4.4 - 4.5 - 4.6 - 4.7 - -Sound -***** - -Pressure variations, about an equilibrium pressure, transmitted through -a medium is called sound. They are longitudinal waves. Moving a sheet of -paper back and forth in air can generate these kind of pressure waves, -like the paper cone of a loudspeaker. When the frequency is within 20 to -20000Hz range, we can hear the sound. In this chapter, we will generate -sound from electrical signals, detect them using the built-in microphone -(a pressure sensor) and study the properties like amplitude and -frequency. Velocity of sound is measured by observing the phase shift of -digitized sound with distance. - -.. toctree:: - :maxdepth: 2 - - 5.1 - 5.2 - 5.3 - -Mechanics & Heat -**************** - -Resonance phenomena is studied using a driven pendulum. Value of -acceleration due to gravity is measured using a pendulum. Cooling of a -liquid is studied using a PT100 sensor. - - -.. toctree:: - :maxdepth: 2 - - 6.1 - 6.2 - 6.3 - 6.4 - 6.5 - -Coding expEYES-17 in Python -*************************** - -The GUI programs described in the previous sections are meant for a -fixed set of experiments. To develop new experiments, one should know -how to access the features of expEYES from software. 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- -$(document).ready(function() { - Documentation.init(); -}); \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/documentation_options.js b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/documentation_options.js deleted file mode 100644 index d704e7ccc8ca64c892eac4543980d84fa0667a47..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/documentation_options.js +++ /dev/null @@ -1,9 +0,0 @@ -var DOCUMENTATION_OPTIONS = { - URL_ROOT: document.getElementById("documentation_options").getAttribute('data-url_root'), - VERSION: '1.0', - LANGUAGE: 'en', - COLLAPSE_INDEX: false, - FILE_SUFFIX: '.html', - HAS_SOURCE: true, - SOURCELINK_SUFFIX: '.txt' -}; \ No newline at end of file diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/down-pressed.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/down-pressed.png deleted file mode 100644 index 5756c8cad8854722893dc70b9eb4bb0400343a39..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/down-pressed.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/down.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/down.png deleted file mode 100644 index 1b3bdad2ceffae91cee61b32f3295f9bbe646e48..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/down.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/file.png b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/file.png deleted file mode 100644 index a858a410e4faa62ce324d814e4b816fff83a6fb3..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Binary files a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/file.png and /dev/null differ diff --git a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/jquery.js b/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/jquery.js deleted file mode 100644 index ba171ca3fd8887fa258e427020fa15f82c68cac3..0000000000000000000000000000000000000000 --- a/ExpEYES17/UserManual/en/rst/exp/_build/html/_static/jquery.js +++ /dev/null @@ -1,10253 +0,0 @@ -/*! - * jQuery JavaScript Library v3.2.1 - * https://jquery.com/ - * - * Includes Sizzle.js - * https://sizzlejs.com/ - * - * Copyright JS Foundation and other contributors - * Released under the MIT license - * https://jquery.org/license - * - * Date: 2017-09-03T00:14Z - */ -( function( global, factory ) { - - "use strict"; - - if ( typeof module === "object" && typeof module.exports === "object" ) { - - // For CommonJS and CommonJS-like environments where a proper `window` - // is present, execute the factory and get jQuery. - // For environments that do not have a `window` with a `document` - // (such as Node.js), expose a factory as module.exports. - // This accentuates the need for the creation of a real `window`. - // e.g. var jQuery = require("jquery")(window); - // See ticket #14549 for more info. - module.exports = global.document ? - factory( global, true ) : - function( w ) { - if ( !w.document ) { - throw new Error( "jQuery requires a window with a document" ); - } - return factory( w ); - }; - } else { - factory( global ); - } - -// Pass this if window is not defined yet -} )( typeof window !== "undefined" ? window : this, function( window, noGlobal ) { - -// Edge <= 12 - 13+, Firefox <=18 - 45+, IE 10 - 11, Safari 5.1 - 9+, iOS 6 - 9.1 -// throw exceptions when non-strict code (e.g., ASP.NET 4.5) accesses strict mode -// arguments.callee.caller (trac-13335). But as of jQuery 3.0 (2016), strict mode should be common -// enough that all such attempts are guarded in a try block. - - -var arr = []; - -var document = window.document; - -var getProto = Object.getPrototypeOf; - -var slice = arr.slice; - -var concat = arr.concat; - -var push = arr.push; - -var indexOf = arr.indexOf; - -var class2type = {}; - -var toString = class2type.toString; - -var hasOwn = class2type.hasOwnProperty; - -var fnToString = hasOwn.toString; - -var ObjectFunctionString = fnToString.call( Object ); - -var support = {}; - - - - function DOMEval( code, doc ) { - doc = doc || document; - - var script = doc.createElement( "script" ); - - script.text = code; - doc.head.appendChild( script ).parentNode.removeChild( script ); - } -/* global Symbol */ -// Defining this global in .eslintrc.json would create a danger of using the global -// unguarded in another place, it seems safer to define global only for this module - - - -var - version = "3.2.1", - - // Define a local copy of jQuery - jQuery = function( selector, context ) { - - // The jQuery object is actually just the init constructor 'enhanced' - // Need init if jQuery is called (just allow error to be thrown if not included) - return new jQuery.fn.init( selector, context ); - }, - - // Support: Android <=4.0 only - // Make sure we trim BOM and NBSP - rtrim = /^[\s\uFEFF\xA0]+|[\s\uFEFF\xA0]+$/g, - - // Matches dashed string for camelizing - rmsPrefix = /^-ms-/, - rdashAlpha = /-([a-z])/g, - - // Used by jQuery.camelCase as callback to replace() - fcamelCase = function( all, letter ) { - return letter.toUpperCase(); - }; - -jQuery.fn = jQuery.prototype = { - - // The current version of jQuery being used - jquery: version, - - constructor: jQuery, - - // The default length of a jQuery object is 0 - length: 0, - - toArray: function() { - return slice.call( this ); - }, - - // Get the Nth element in the matched element set OR - // Get the whole matched element set as a clean array - get: function( num ) { - - // Return all the elements in a clean array - if ( num == null ) { - return slice.call( this ); - } - - // Return just the one element from the set - return num < 0 ? this[ num + this.length ] : this[ num ]; - }, - - // Take an array of elements and push it onto the stack - // (returning the new matched element set) - pushStack: function( elems ) { - - // Build a new jQuery matched element set - var ret = jQuery.merge( this.constructor(), elems ); - - // Add the old object onto the stack (as a reference) - ret.prevObject = this; - - // Return the newly-formed element set - return ret; - }, - - // Execute a callback for every element in the matched set. - each: function( callback ) { - return jQuery.each( this, callback ); - }, - - map: function( callback ) { - return this.pushStack( jQuery.map( this, function( elem, i ) { - return callback.call( elem, i, elem ); - } ) ); - }, - - slice: function() { - return this.pushStack( slice.apply( this, arguments ) ); - }, - - first: function() { - return this.eq( 0 ); - }, - - last: function() { - return this.eq( -1 ); - }, - - eq: function( i ) { - var len = this.length, - j = +i + ( i < 0 ? len : 0 ); - return this.pushStack( j >= 0 && j < len ? [ this[ j ] ] : [] ); - }, - - end: function() { - return this.prevObject || this.constructor(); - }, - - // For internal use only. - // Behaves like an Array's method, not like a jQuery method. - push: push, - sort: arr.sort, - splice: arr.splice -}; - -jQuery.extend = jQuery.fn.extend = function() { - var options, name, src, copy, copyIsArray, clone, - target = arguments[ 0 ] || {}, - i = 1, - length = arguments.length, - deep = false; - - // Handle a deep copy situation - if ( typeof target === "boolean" ) { - deep = target; - - // Skip the boolean and the target - target = arguments[ i ] || {}; - i++; - } - - // Handle case when target is a string or something (possible in deep copy) - if ( typeof target !== "object" && !jQuery.isFunction( target ) ) { - target = {}; - } - - // Extend jQuery itself if only one argument is passed - if ( i === length ) { - target = this; - i--; - } - - for ( ; i < length; i++ ) { - - // Only deal with non-null/undefined values - if ( ( options = arguments[ i ] ) != null ) { - - // Extend the base object - for ( name in options ) { - src = target[ name ]; - copy = options[ name ]; - - // Prevent never-ending loop - if ( target === copy ) { - continue; - } - - // Recurse if we're merging plain objects or arrays - if ( deep && copy && ( jQuery.isPlainObject( copy ) || - ( copyIsArray = Array.isArray( copy ) ) ) ) { - - if ( copyIsArray ) { - copyIsArray = false; - clone = src && Array.isArray( src ) ? src : []; - - } else { - clone = src && jQuery.isPlainObject( src ) ? src : {}; - } - - // Never move original objects, clone them - target[ name ] = jQuery.extend( deep, clone, copy ); - - // Don't bring in undefined values - } else if ( copy !== undefined ) { - target[ name ] = copy; - } - } - } - } - - // Return the modified object - return target; -}; - -jQuery.extend( { - - // Unique for each copy of jQuery on the page - expando: "jQuery" + ( version + Math.random() ).replace( /\D/g, "" ), - - // Assume jQuery is ready without the ready module - isReady: true, - - error: function( msg ) { - throw new Error( msg ); - }, - - noop: function() {}, - - isFunction: function( obj ) { - return jQuery.type( obj ) === "function"; - }, - - isWindow: function( obj ) { - return obj != null && obj === obj.window; - }, - - isNumeric: function( obj ) { - - // As of jQuery 3.0, isNumeric is limited to - // strings and numbers (primitives or objects) - // that can be coerced to finite numbers (gh-2662) - var type = jQuery.type( obj ); - return ( type === "number" || type === "string" ) && - - // parseFloat NaNs numeric-cast false positives ("") - // ...but misinterprets leading-number strings, particularly hex literals ("0x...") - // subtraction forces infinities to NaN - !isNaN( obj - parseFloat( obj ) ); - }, - - isPlainObject: function( obj ) { - var proto, Ctor; - - // Detect obvious negatives - // Use toString instead of jQuery.type to catch host objects - if ( !obj || toString.call( obj ) !== "[object Object]" ) { - return false; - } - - proto = getProto( obj ); - - // Objects with no prototype (e.g., `Object.create( null )`) are plain - if ( !proto ) { - return true; - } - - // Objects with prototype are plain iff they were constructed by a global Object function - Ctor = hasOwn.call( proto, "constructor" ) && proto.constructor; - return typeof Ctor === "function" && fnToString.call( Ctor ) === ObjectFunctionString; - }, - - isEmptyObject: function( obj ) { - - /* eslint-disable no-unused-vars */ - // See https://github.com/eslint/eslint/issues/6125 - var name; - - for ( name in obj ) { - return false; - } - return true; - }, - - type: function( obj ) { - if ( obj == null ) { - return obj + ""; - } - - // Support: Android <=2.3 only (functionish RegExp) - return typeof obj === "object" || typeof obj === "function" ? - class2type[ toString.call( obj ) ] || "object" : - typeof obj; - }, - - // Evaluates a script in a global context - globalEval: function( code ) { - DOMEval( code ); - }, - - // Convert dashed to camelCase; used by the css and data modules - // Support: IE <=9 - 11, Edge 12 - 13 - // Microsoft forgot to hump their vendor prefix (#9572) - camelCase: function( string ) { - return string.replace( rmsPrefix, "ms-" ).replace( rdashAlpha, fcamelCase ); - }, - - each: function( obj, callback ) { - var length, i = 0; - - if ( isArrayLike( obj ) ) { - length = obj.length; - for ( ; i < length; i++ ) { - if ( callback.call( obj[ i ], i, obj[ i ] ) === false ) { - break; - } - } - } else { - for ( i in obj ) { - if ( callback.call( obj[ i ], i, obj[ i ] ) === false ) { - break; - } - } - } - - return obj; - }, - - // Support: Android <=4.0 only - trim: function( text ) { - return text == null ? - "" : - ( text + "" ).replace( rtrim, "" ); - }, - - // results is for internal usage only - makeArray: function( arr, results ) { - var ret = results || []; - - if ( arr != null ) { - if ( isArrayLike( Object( arr ) ) ) { - jQuery.merge( ret, - typeof arr === "string" ? - [ arr ] : arr - ); - } else { - push.call( ret, arr ); - } - } - - return ret; - }, - - inArray: function( elem, arr, i ) { - return arr == null ? -1 : indexOf.call( arr, elem, i ); - }, - - // Support: Android <=4.0 only, PhantomJS 1 only - // push.apply(_, arraylike) throws on ancient WebKit - merge: function( first, second ) { - var len = +second.length, - j = 0, - i = first.length; - - for ( ; j < len; j++ ) { - first[ i++ ] = second[ j ]; - } - - first.length = i; - - return first; - }, - - grep: function( elems, callback, invert ) { - var callbackInverse, - matches = [], - i = 0, - length = elems.length, - callbackExpect = !invert; - - // Go through the array, only saving the items - // that pass the validator function - for ( ; i < length; i++ ) { - callbackInverse = !callback( elems[ i ], i ); - if ( callbackInverse !== callbackExpect ) { - matches.push( elems[ i ] ); - } - } - - return matches; - }, - - // arg is for internal usage only - map: function( elems, callback, arg ) { - var length, value, - i = 0, - ret = []; - - // Go through the array, translating each of the items to their new values - if ( isArrayLike( elems ) ) { - length = elems.length; - for ( ; i < length; i++ ) { - value = callback( elems[ i ], i, arg ); - - if ( value != null ) { - ret.push( value ); - } - } - - // Go through every key on the object, - } else { - for ( i in elems ) { - value = callback( elems[ i ], i, arg ); - - if ( value != null ) { - ret.push( value ); - } - } - } - - // Flatten any nested arrays - return concat.apply( [], ret ); - }, - - // A global GUID counter for objects - guid: 1, - - // Bind a function to a context, optionally partially applying any - // arguments. - proxy: function( fn, context ) { - var tmp, args, proxy; - - if ( typeof context === "string" ) { - tmp = fn[ context ]; - context = fn; - fn = tmp; - } - - // Quick check to determine if target is callable, in the spec - // this throws a TypeError, but we will just return undefined. - if ( !jQuery.isFunction( fn ) ) { - return undefined; - } - - // Simulated bind - args = slice.call( arguments, 2 ); - proxy = function() { - return fn.apply( context || this, args.concat( slice.call( arguments ) ) ); - }; - - // Set the guid of unique handler to the same of original handler, so it can be removed - proxy.guid = fn.guid = fn.guid || jQuery.guid++; - - return proxy; - }, - - now: Date.now, - - // jQuery.support is not used in Core but other projects attach their - // properties to it so it needs to exist. - support: support -} ); - -if ( typeof Symbol === "function" ) { - jQuery.fn[ Symbol.iterator ] = arr[ Symbol.iterator ]; -} - -// Populate the class2type map -jQuery.each( "Boolean Number String Function Array Date RegExp Object Error Symbol".split( " " ), -function( i, name ) { - class2type[ "[object " + name + "]" ] = name.toLowerCase(); -} ); - -function isArrayLike( obj ) { - - // Support: real iOS 8.2 only (not reproducible in simulator) - // `in` check used to prevent JIT error (gh-2145) - // hasOwn isn't used here due to false negatives - // regarding Nodelist length in IE - var length = !!obj && "length" in obj && obj.length, - type = jQuery.type( obj ); - - if ( type === "function" || jQuery.isWindow( obj ) ) { - return false; - } - - return type === "array" || length === 0 || - typeof length === "number" && length > 0 && ( length - 1 ) in obj; -} -var Sizzle = -/*! - * Sizzle CSS Selector Engine v2.3.3 - * https://sizzlejs.com/ - * - * Copyright jQuery Foundation and other contributors - * Released under the MIT license - * http://jquery.org/license - * - * Date: 2016-08-08 - */ -(function( window ) { - -var i, - support, - Expr, - getText, - isXML, - tokenize, - compile, - select, - outermostContext, - sortInput, - hasDuplicate, - - // Local document vars - setDocument, - document, - docElem, - documentIsHTML, - rbuggyQSA, - rbuggyMatches, - matches, - contains, - - // Instance-specific data - expando = "sizzle" + 1 * new Date(), - preferredDoc = window.document, - dirruns = 0, - done = 0, - classCache = createCache(), - tokenCache = createCache(), - compilerCache = createCache(), - sortOrder = function( a, b ) { - if ( a === b ) { - hasDuplicate = true; - } - return 0; - }, - - // Instance methods - hasOwn = ({}).hasOwnProperty, - arr = [], - pop = arr.pop, - push_native = arr.push, - push = arr.push, - slice = arr.slice, - // Use a stripped-down indexOf as it's faster than native - // https://jsperf.com/thor-indexof-vs-for/5 - indexOf = function( list, elem ) { - var i = 0, - len = list.length; - for ( ; i < len; i++ ) { - if ( list[i] === elem ) { - return i; - } - } - return -1; - }, - - booleans = "checked|selected|async|autofocus|autoplay|controls|defer|disabled|hidden|ismap|loop|multiple|open|readonly|required|scoped", - - // Regular expressions - - // http://www.w3.org/TR/css3-selectors/#whitespace - whitespace = "[\\x20\\t\\r\\n\\f]", - - // http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/syndata.html#value-def-identifier - identifier = "(?:\\\\.|[\\w-]|[^\0-\\xa0])+", - - // Attribute selectors: http://www.w3.org/TR/selectors/#attribute-selectors - attributes = "\\[" + whitespace + "*(" + identifier + ")(?:" + whitespace + - // Operator (capture 2) - "*([*^$|!~]?=)" + whitespace + - // "Attribute values must be CSS identifiers [capture 5] or strings [capture 3 or capture 4]" - "*(?:'((?:\\\\.|[^\\\\'])*)'|\"((?:\\\\.|[^\\\\\"])*)\"|(" + identifier + "))|)" + whitespace + - "*\\]", - - pseudos = ":(" + identifier + ")(?:\\((" + - // To reduce the number of selectors needing tokenize in the preFilter, prefer arguments: - // 1. quoted (capture 3; capture 4 or capture 5) - "('((?:\\\\.|[^\\\\'])*)'|\"((?:\\\\.|[^\\\\\"])*)\")|" + - // 2. simple (capture 6) - "((?:\\\\.|[^\\\\()[\\]]|" + attributes + ")*)|" + - // 3. anything else (capture 2) - ".*" + - ")\\)|)", - - // Leading and non-escaped trailing whitespace, capturing some non-whitespace characters preceding the latter - rwhitespace = new RegExp( whitespace + "+", "g" ), - rtrim = new RegExp( "^" + whitespace + "+|((?:^|[^\\\\])(?:\\\\.)*)" + whitespace + "+$", "g" ), - - rcomma = new RegExp( "^" + whitespace + "*," + whitespace + "*" ), - rcombinators = new RegExp( "^" + whitespace + "*([>+~]|" + whitespace + ")" + whitespace + "*" ), - - rattributeQuotes = new RegExp( "=" + whitespace + "*([^\\]'\"]*?)" + whitespace + "*\\]", "g" ), - - rpseudo = new RegExp( pseudos ), - ridentifier = new RegExp( "^" + identifier + "$" ), - - matchExpr = { - "ID": new RegExp( "^#(" + identifier + ")" ), - "CLASS": new RegExp( "^\\.(" + identifier + ")" ), - "TAG": new RegExp( "^(" + identifier + "|[*])" ), - "ATTR": new RegExp( "^" + attributes ), - "PSEUDO": new RegExp( "^" + pseudos ), - "CHILD": new RegExp( "^:(only|first|last|nth|nth-last)-(child|of-type)(?:\\(" + whitespace + - "*(even|odd|(([+-]|)(\\d*)n|)" + whitespace + "*(?:([+-]|)" + whitespace + - "*(\\d+)|))" + whitespace + "*\\)|)", "i" ), - "bool": new RegExp( "^(?:" + booleans + ")$", "i" ), - // For use in libraries implementing .is() - // We use this for POS matching in `select` - "needsContext": new RegExp( "^" + whitespace + "*[>+~]|:(even|odd|eq|gt|lt|nth|first|last)(?:\\(" + - whitespace + "*((?:-\\d)?\\d*)" + whitespace + "*\\)|)(?=[^-]|$)", "i" ) - }, - - rinputs = /^(?:input|select|textarea|button)$/i, - rheader = /^h\d$/i, - - rnative = /^[^{]+\{\s*\[native \w/, - - // Easily-parseable/retrievable ID or TAG or CLASS selectors - rquickExpr = /^(?:#([\w-]+)|(\w+)|\.([\w-]+))$/, - - rsibling = /[+~]/, - - // CSS escapes - // http://www.w3.org/TR/CSS21/syndata.html#escaped-characters - runescape = new RegExp( "\\\\([\\da-f]{1,6}" + whitespace + "?|(" + whitespace + ")|.)", "ig" ), - funescape = function( _, escaped, escapedWhitespace ) { - var high = "0x" + escaped - 0x10000; - // NaN means non-codepoint - // Support: Firefox<24 - // Workaround erroneous numeric interpretation of +"0x" - return high !== high || escapedWhitespace ? - escaped : - high < 0 ? - // BMP codepoint - String.fromCharCode( high + 0x10000 ) : - // Supplemental Plane codepoint (surrogate pair) - String.fromCharCode( high >> 10 | 0xD800, high & 0x3FF | 0xDC00 ); - }, - - // CSS string/identifier serialization - // https://drafts.csswg.org/cssom/#common-serializing-idioms - rcssescape = /([\0-\x1f\x7f]|^-?\d)|^-$|[^\0-\x1f\x7f-\uFFFF\w-]/g, - fcssescape = function( ch, asCodePoint ) { - if ( asCodePoint ) { - - // U+0000 NULL becomes U+FFFD REPLACEMENT CHARACTER - if ( ch === "\0" ) { - return "\uFFFD"; - } - - // Control characters and (dependent upon position) numbers get escaped as code points - return ch.slice( 0, -1 ) + "\\" + ch.charCodeAt( ch.length - 1 ).toString( 16 ) + " "; - } - - // Other potentially-special ASCII characters get backslash-escaped - return "\\" + ch; - }, - - // Used for iframes - // See setDocument() - // Removing the function wrapper causes a "Permission Denied" - // error in IE - unloadHandler = function() { - setDocument(); - }, - - disabledAncestor = addCombinator( - function( elem ) { - return elem.disabled === true && ("form" in elem || "label" in elem); - }, - { dir: "parentNode", next: "legend" } - ); - -// Optimize for push.apply( _, NodeList ) -try { - push.apply( - (arr = slice.call( preferredDoc.childNodes )), - preferredDoc.childNodes - ); - // Support: Android<4.0 - // Detect silently failing push.apply - arr[ preferredDoc.childNodes.length ].nodeType; -} catch ( e ) { - push = { apply: arr.length ? - - // Leverage slice if possible - function( target, els ) { - push_native.apply( target, slice.call(els) ); - } : - - // Support: IE<9 - // Otherwise append directly - function( target, els ) { - var j = target.length, - i = 0; - // Can't trust NodeList.length - while ( (target[j++] = els[i++]) ) {} - target.length = j - 1; - } - }; -} - -function Sizzle( selector, context, results, seed ) { - var m, i, elem, nid, match, groups, newSelector, - newContext = context && context.ownerDocument, - - // nodeType defaults to 9, since context defaults to document - nodeType = context ? context.nodeType : 9; - - results = results || []; - - // Return early from calls with invalid selector or context - if ( typeof selector !== "string" || !selector || - nodeType !== 1 && nodeType !== 9 && nodeType !== 11 ) { - - return results; - } - - // Try to shortcut find operations (as opposed to filters) in HTML documents - if ( !seed ) { - - if ( ( context ? context.ownerDocument || context : preferredDoc ) !== document ) { - setDocument( context ); - } - context = context || document; - - if ( documentIsHTML ) { - - // If the selector is sufficiently simple, try using a "get*By*" DOM method - // (excepting DocumentFragment context, where the methods don't exist) - if ( nodeType !== 11 && (match = rquickExpr.exec( selector )) ) { - - // ID selector - if ( (m = match[1]) ) { - - // Document context - if ( nodeType === 9 ) { - if ( (elem = context.getElementById( m )) ) { - - // Support: IE, Opera, Webkit - // TODO: identify versions - // getElementById can match elements by name instead of ID - if ( elem.id === m ) { - results.push( elem ); - return results; - } - } else { - return results; - } - - // Element context - } else { - - // Support: IE, Opera, Webkit - // TODO: identify versions - // getElementById can match elements by name instead of ID - if ( newContext && (elem = newContext.getElementById( m )) && - contains( context, elem ) && - elem.id === m ) { - - results.push( elem ); - return results; - } - } - - // Type selector - } else if ( match[2] ) { - push.apply( results, context.getElementsByTagName( selector ) ); - return results; - - // Class selector - } else if ( (m = match[3]) && support.getElementsByClassName && - context.getElementsByClassName ) { - - push.apply( results, context.getElementsByClassName( m ) ); - return results; - } - } - - // Take advantage of querySelectorAll - if ( support.qsa && - !compilerCache[ selector + " " ] && - (!rbuggyQSA || !rbuggyQSA.test( selector )) ) { - - if ( nodeType !== 1 ) { - newContext = context; - newSelector = selector; - - // qSA looks outside Element context, which is not what we want - // Thanks to Andrew Dupont for this workaround technique - // Support: IE <=8 - // Exclude object elements - } else if ( context.nodeName.toLowerCase() !== "object" ) { - - // Capture the context ID, setting it first if necessary - if ( (nid = context.getAttribute( "id" )) ) { - nid = nid.replace( rcssescape, fcssescape ); - } else { - context.setAttribute( "id", (nid = expando) ); - } - - // Prefix every selector in the list - groups = tokenize( selector ); - i = groups.length; - while ( i-- ) { - groups[i] = "#" + nid + " " + toSelector( groups[i] ); - } - newSelector = groups.join( "," ); - - // Expand context for sibling selectors - newContext = rsibling.test( selector ) && testContext( context.parentNode ) || - context; - } - - if ( newSelector ) { - try { - push.apply( results, - newContext.querySelectorAll( newSelector ) - ); - return results; - } catch ( qsaError ) { - } finally { - if ( nid === expando ) { - context.removeAttribute( "id" ); - } - } - } - } - } - } - - // All others - return select( selector.replace( rtrim, "$1" ), context, results, seed ); -} - -/** - * Create key-value caches of limited size - * @returns {function(string, object)} Returns the Object data after storing it on itself with - * property name the (space-suffixed) string and (if the cache is larger than Expr.cacheLength) - * deleting the oldest entry - */ -function createCache() { - var keys = []; - - function cache( key, value ) { - // Use (key + " ") to avoid collision with native prototype properties (see Issue #157) - if ( keys.push( key + " " ) > Expr.cacheLength ) { - // Only keep the most recent entries - delete cache[ keys.shift() ]; - } - return (cache[ key + " " ] = value); - } - return cache; -} - -/** - * Mark a function for special use by Sizzle - * @param {Function} fn The function to mark - */ -function markFunction( fn ) { - fn[ expando ] = true; - return fn; -} - -/** - * Support testing using an element - * @param {Function} fn Passed the created element and returns a boolean result - */ -function assert( fn ) { - var el = document.createElement("fieldset"); - - try { - return !!fn( el ); - } catch (e) { - return false; - } finally { - // Remove from its parent by default - if ( el.parentNode ) { - el.parentNode.removeChild( el ); - } - // release memory in IE - el = null; - } -} - -/** - * Adds the same handler for all of the specified attrs - * @param {String} attrs Pipe-separated list of attributes - * @param {Function} handler The method that will be applied - */ -function addHandle( attrs, handler ) { - var arr = attrs.split("|"), - i = arr.length; - - while ( i-- ) { - Expr.attrHandle[ arr[i] ] = handler; - } -} - -/** - * Checks document order of two siblings - * @param {Element} a - * @param {Element} b - * @returns {Number} Returns less than 0 if a precedes b, greater than 0 if a follows b - */ -function siblingCheck( a, b ) { - var cur = b && a, - diff = cur && a.nodeType === 1 && b.nodeType === 1 && - a.sourceIndex - b.sourceIndex; - - // Use IE sourceIndex if available on both nodes - if ( diff ) { - return diff; - } - - // Check if b follows a - if ( cur ) { - while ( (cur = cur.nextSibling) ) { - if ( cur === b ) { - return -1; - } - } - } - - return a ? 1 : -1; -} - -/** - * Returns a function to use in pseudos for input types - * @param {String} type - */ -function createInputPseudo( type ) { - return function( elem ) { - var name = elem.nodeName.toLowerCase(); - return name === "input" && elem.type === type; - }; -} - -/** - * Returns a function to use in pseudos for buttons - * @param {String} type - */ -function createButtonPseudo( type ) { - return function( elem ) { - var name = elem.nodeName.toLowerCase(); - return (name === "input" || name === "button") && elem.type === type; - }; -} - -/** - * Returns a function to use in pseudos for :enabled/:disabled - * @param {Boolean} disabled true for :disabled; false for :enabled - */ -function createDisabledPseudo( disabled ) { - - // Known :disabled false positives: fieldset[disabled] > legend:nth-of-type(n+2) :can-disable - return function( elem ) { - - // Only certain elements can match :enabled or :disabled - // https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/scripting.html#selector-enabled - // https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/scripting.html#selector-disabled - if ( "form" in elem ) { - - // Check for inherited disabledness on relevant non-disabled elements: - // * listed form-associated elements in a disabled fieldset - // https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/forms.html#category-listed - // https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/forms.html#concept-fe-disabled - // * option elements in a disabled optgroup - // https://html.spec.whatwg.org/multipage/forms.html#concept-option-disabled - // All such elements have a "form" property. - if ( elem.parentNode && elem.disabled === false ) { - - // Option elements defer to a parent optgroup if present - if ( "label" in elem ) { - if ( "label" in elem.parentNode ) { - return elem.parentNode.disabled === disabled; - } else { - return elem.disabled === disabled; - } - } - - // Support: IE 6 - 11 - // Use the isDisabled shortcut property to check for disabled fieldset ancestors - return elem.isDisabled === disabled || - - // Where there is no isDisabled, check manually - /* jshint -W018 */ - elem.isDisabled !== !disabled && - disabledAncestor( elem ) === disabled; - } - - return elem.disabled === disabled; - - // Try to winnow out elements that can't be disabled before trusting the disabled property. - // Some victims get caught in our net (label, legend, menu, track), but it shouldn't - // even exist on them, let alone have a boolean value. - } else if ( "label" in elem ) { - return elem.disabled === disabled; - } - - // Remaining elements are neither :enabled nor :disabled - return false; - }; -} - -/** - * Returns a function to use in pseudos for positionals - * @param {Function} fn - */ -function createPositionalPseudo( fn ) { - return markFunction(function( argument ) { - argument = +argument; - return markFunction(function( seed, matches ) { - var j, - matchIndexes = fn( [], seed.length, argument ), - i = matchIndexes.length; - - // Match elements found at the specified indexes - while ( i-- ) { - if ( seed[ (j = matchIndexes[i]) ] ) { - seed[j] = !(matches[j] = seed[j]); - } - } - }); - }); -} - -/** - * Checks a node for validity as a Sizzle context - * @param {Element|Object=} context - * @returns {Element|Object|Boolean} The input node if acceptable, otherwise a falsy value - */ -function testContext( context ) { - return context && typeof context.getElementsByTagName !== "undefined" && context; -} - -// Expose support vars for convenience -support = Sizzle.support = {}; - -/** - * Detects XML nodes - * @param {Element|Object} elem An element or a document - * @returns {Boolean} True iff elem is a non-HTML XML node - */ -isXML = Sizzle.isXML = function( elem ) { - // documentElement is verified for cases where it doesn't yet exist - // (such as loading iframes in IE - #4833) - var documentElement = elem && (elem.ownerDocument || elem).documentElement; - return documentElement ? documentElement.nodeName !== "HTML" : false; -}; - -/** - * Sets document-related variables once based on the current document - * @param {Element|Object} [doc] An element or document object to use to set the document - * @returns {Object} Returns the current document - */ -setDocument = Sizzle.setDocument = function( node ) { - var hasCompare, subWindow, - doc = node ? node.ownerDocument || node : preferredDoc; - - // Return early if doc is invalid or already selected - if ( doc === document || doc.nodeType !== 9 || !doc.documentElement ) { - return document; - } - - // Update global variables - document = doc; - docElem = document.documentElement; - documentIsHTML = !isXML( document ); - - // Support: IE 9-11, Edge - // Accessing iframe documents after unload throws "permission denied" errors (jQuery #13936) - if ( preferredDoc !== document && - (subWindow = document.defaultView) && subWindow.top !== subWindow ) { - - // Support: IE 11, Edge - if ( subWindow.addEventListener ) { - subWindow.addEventListener( "unload", unloadHandler, false ); - - // Support: IE 9 - 10 only - } else if ( subWindow.attachEvent ) { - subWindow.attachEvent( "onunload", unloadHandler ); - } - } - - /* Attributes - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */ - - // Support: IE<8 - // Verify that getAttribute really returns attributes and not properties - // (excepting IE8 booleans) - support.attributes = assert(function( el ) { - el.className = "i"; - return !el.getAttribute("className"); - }); - - /* getElement(s)By* - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */ - - // Check if getElementsByTagName("*") returns only elements - support.getElementsByTagName = assert(function( el ) { - el.appendChild( document.createComment("") ); - return !el.getElementsByTagName("*").length; - }); - - // Support: IE<9 - support.getElementsByClassName = rnative.test( document.getElementsByClassName ); - - // Support: IE<10 - // Check if getElementById returns elements by name - // The broken getElementById methods don't pick up programmatically-set names, - // so use a roundabout getElementsByName test - support.getById = assert(function( el ) { - docElem.appendChild( el ).id = expando; - return !document.getElementsByName || !document.getElementsByName( expando ).length; - }); - - // ID filter and find - if ( support.getById ) { - Expr.filter["ID"] = function( id ) { - var attrId = id.replace( runescape, funescape ); - return function( elem ) { - return elem.getAttribute("id") === attrId; - }; - }; - Expr.find["ID"] = function( id, context ) { - if ( typeof context.getElementById !== "undefined" && documentIsHTML ) { - var elem = context.getElementById( id ); - return elem ? [ elem ] : []; - } - }; - } else { - Expr.filter["ID"] = function( id ) { - var attrId = id.replace( runescape, funescape ); - return function( elem ) { - var node = typeof elem.getAttributeNode !== "undefined" && - elem.getAttributeNode("id"); - return node && node.value === attrId; - }; - }; - - // Support: IE 6 - 7 only - // getElementById is not reliable as a find shortcut - Expr.find["ID"] = function( id, context ) { - if ( typeof context.getElementById !== "undefined" && documentIsHTML ) { - var node, i, elems, - elem = context.getElementById( id ); - - if ( elem ) { - - // Verify the id attribute - node = elem.getAttributeNode("id"); - if ( node && node.value === id ) { - return [ elem ]; - } - - // Fall back on getElementsByName - elems = context.getElementsByName( id ); - i = 0; - while ( (elem = elems[i++]) ) { - node = elem.getAttributeNode("id"); - if ( node && node.value === id ) { - return [ elem ]; - } - } - } - - return []; - } - }; - } - - // Tag - Expr.find["TAG"] = support.getElementsByTagName ? - function( tag, context ) { - if ( typeof context.getElementsByTagName !== "undefined" ) { - return context.getElementsByTagName( tag ); - - // DocumentFragment nodes don't have gEBTN - } else if ( support.qsa ) { - return context.querySelectorAll( tag ); - } - } : - - function( tag, context ) { - var elem, - tmp = [], - i = 0, - // By happy coincidence, a (broken) gEBTN appears on DocumentFragment nodes too - results = context.getElementsByTagName( tag ); - - // Filter out possible comments - if ( tag === "*" ) { - while ( (elem = results[i++]) ) { - if ( elem.nodeType === 1 ) { - tmp.push( elem ); - } - } - - return tmp; - } - return results; - }; - - // Class - Expr.find["CLASS"] = support.getElementsByClassName && function( className, context ) { - if ( typeof context.getElementsByClassName !== "undefined" && documentIsHTML ) { - return context.getElementsByClassName( className ); - } - }; - - /* QSA/matchesSelector - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */ - - // QSA and matchesSelector support - - // matchesSelector(:active) reports false when true (IE9/Opera 11.5) - rbuggyMatches = []; - - // qSa(:focus) reports false when true (Chrome 21) - // We allow this because of a bug in IE8/9 that throws an error - // whenever `document.activeElement` is accessed on an iframe - // So, we allow :focus to pass through QSA all the time to avoid the IE error - // See https://bugs.jquery.com/ticket/13378 - rbuggyQSA = []; - - if ( (support.qsa = rnative.test( document.querySelectorAll )) ) { - // Build QSA regex - // Regex strategy adopted from Diego Perini - assert(function( el ) { - // Select is set to empty string on purpose - // This is to test IE's treatment of not explicitly - // setting a boolean content attribute, - // since its presence should be enough - // https://bugs.jquery.com/ticket/12359 - docElem.appendChild( el ).innerHTML = "" + - ""; - - // Support: IE8, Opera 11-12.16 - // Nothing should be selected when empty strings follow ^= or $= or *= - // The test attribute must be unknown in Opera but "safe" for WinRT - // https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ie/hh465388.aspx#attribute_section - if ( el.querySelectorAll("[msallowcapture^='']").length ) { - rbuggyQSA.push( "[*^$]=" + whitespace + "*(?:''|\"\")" ); - } - - // Support: IE8 - // Boolean attributes and "value" are not treated correctly - if ( !el.querySelectorAll("[selected]").length ) { - rbuggyQSA.push( "\\[" + whitespace + "*(?:value|" + booleans + ")" ); - } - - // Support: Chrome<29, Android<4.4, Safari<7.0+, iOS<7.0+, PhantomJS<1.9.8+ - if ( !el.querySelectorAll( "[id~=" + expando + "-]" ).length ) { - rbuggyQSA.push("~="); - } - - // Webkit/Opera - :checked should return selected option elements - // http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/REC-css3-selectors-20110929/#checked - // IE8 throws error here and will not see later tests - if ( !el.querySelectorAll(":checked").length ) { - rbuggyQSA.push(":checked"); - } - - // Support: Safari 8+, iOS 8+ - // https://bugs.webkit.org/show_bug.cgi?id=136851 - // In-page `selector#id sibling-combinator selector` fails - if ( !el.querySelectorAll( "a#" + expando + "+*" ).length ) { - rbuggyQSA.push(".#.+[+~]"); - } - }); - - assert(function( el ) { - el.innerHTML = "" + - ""; - - // Support: Windows 8 Native Apps - // The type and name attributes are restricted during .innerHTML assignment - var input = document.createElement("input"); - input.setAttribute( "type", "hidden" ); - el.appendChild( input ).setAttribute( "name", "D" ); - - // Support: IE8 - // Enforce case-sensitivity of name attribute - if ( el.querySelectorAll("[name=d]").length ) { - rbuggyQSA.push( "name" + whitespace + "*[*^$|!~]?=" ); - } - - // FF 3.5 - :enabled/:disabled and hidden elements (hidden elements are still enabled) - // IE8 throws error here and will not see later tests - if ( el.querySelectorAll(":enabled").length !== 2 ) { - rbuggyQSA.push( ":enabled", ":disabled" ); - } - - // Support: IE9-11+ - // IE's :disabled selector does not pick up the children of disabled fieldsets - docElem.appendChild( el ).disabled = true; - if ( el.querySelectorAll(":disabled").length !== 2 ) { - rbuggyQSA.push( ":enabled", ":disabled" ); - } - - // Opera 10-11 does not throw on post-comma invalid pseudos - el.querySelectorAll("*,:x"); - rbuggyQSA.push(",.*:"); - }); - } - - if ( (support.matchesSelector = rnative.test( (matches = docElem.matches || - docElem.webkitMatchesSelector || - docElem.mozMatchesSelector || - docElem.oMatchesSelector || - docElem.msMatchesSelector) )) ) { - - assert(function( el ) { - // Check to see if it's possible to do matchesSelector - // on a disconnected node (IE 9) - support.disconnectedMatch = matches.call( el, "*" ); - - // This should fail with an exception - // Gecko does not error, returns false instead - matches.call( el, "[s!='']:x" ); - rbuggyMatches.push( "!=", pseudos ); - }); - } - - rbuggyQSA = rbuggyQSA.length && new RegExp( rbuggyQSA.join("|") ); - rbuggyMatches = rbuggyMatches.length && new RegExp( rbuggyMatches.join("|") ); - - /* Contains - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */ - hasCompare = rnative.test( docElem.compareDocumentPosition ); - - // Element contains another - // Purposefully self-exclusive - // As in, an element does not contain itself - contains = hasCompare || rnative.test( docElem.contains ) ? - function( a, b ) { - var adown = a.nodeType === 9 ? a.documentElement : a, - bup = b && b.parentNode; - return a === bup || !!( bup && bup.nodeType === 1 && ( - adown.contains ? - adown.contains( bup ) : - a.compareDocumentPosition && a.compareDocumentPosition( bup ) & 16 - )); - } : - function( a, b ) { - if ( b ) { - while ( (b = b.parentNode) ) { - if ( b === a ) { - return true; - } - } - } - return false; - }; - - /* Sorting - ---------------------------------------------------------------------- */ - - // Document order sorting - sortOrder = hasCompare ? - function( a, b ) { - - // Flag for duplicate removal - if ( a === b ) { - hasDuplicate = true; - return 0; - } - - // Sort on method existence if only one input has compareDocumentPosition - var compare = !a.compareDocumentPosition - !b.compareDocumentPosition; - if ( compare ) { - return compare; - } - - // Calculate position if both inputs belong to the same document - compare = ( a.ownerDocument || a ) === ( b.ownerDocument || b ) ? - a.compareDocumentPosition( b ) : - - // Otherwise we know they are disconnected - 1; - - // Disconnected nodes - if ( compare & 1 || - (!support.sortDetached && b.compareDocumentPosition( a ) === compare) ) { - - // Choose the first element that is related to our preferred document - if ( a === document || a.ownerDocument === preferredDoc && contains(preferredDoc, a) ) { - return -1; - } - if ( b === document || b.ownerDocument === preferredDoc && contains(preferredDoc, b) ) { - return 1; - } - - // Maintain original order - return sortInput ? - ( indexOf( sortInput, a ) - indexOf( sortInput, b ) ) : - 0; - } - - return compare & 4 ? -1 : 1; - } : - function( a, b ) { - // Exit early if the nodes are identical - if ( a === b ) { - hasDuplicate = true; - return 0; - } - - var cur, - i = 0, - aup = a.parentNode, - bup = b.parentNode, - ap = [ a ], - bp = [ b ]; - - // Parentless nodes are either documents or disconnected - if ( !aup || !bup ) { - return a === document ? -1 : - b === document ? 1 : - aup ? -1 : - bup ? 1 : - sortInput ? - ( indexOf( sortInput, a ) - indexOf( sortInput, b ) ) : - 0; - - // If the nodes are siblings, we can do a quick check - } else if ( aup === bup ) { - return siblingCheck( a, b ); - } - - // Otherwise we need full lists of their ancestors for comparison - cur = a; - while ( (cur = cur.parentNode) ) { - ap.unshift( cur ); - } - cur = b; - while ( (cur = cur.parentNode) ) { - bp.unshift( cur ); - } - - // Walk down the tree looking for a discrepancy - while ( ap[i] === bp[i] ) { - i++; - } - - return i ? - // Do a sibling check if the nodes have a common ancestor - siblingCheck( ap[i], bp[i] ) : - - // Otherwise nodes in our document sort first - ap[i] === preferredDoc ? -1 : - bp[i] === preferredDoc ? 1 : - 0; - }; - - return document; -}; - -Sizzle.matches = function( expr, elements ) { - return Sizzle( expr, null, null, elements ); -}; - -Sizzle.matchesSelector = function( elem, expr ) { - // Set document vars if needed - if ( ( elem.ownerDocument || elem ) !== document ) { - setDocument( elem ); - } - - // Make sure that attribute selectors are quoted - expr = expr.replace( rattributeQuotes, "='$1']" ); - - if ( support.matchesSelector && documentIsHTML && - !compilerCache[ expr + " " ] && - ( !rbuggyMatches || !rbuggyMatches.test( expr ) ) && - ( !rbuggyQSA || !rbuggyQSA.test( expr ) ) ) { - - try { - var ret = matches.call( elem, expr ); - - // IE 9's matchesSelector returns false on disconnected nodes - if ( ret || support.disconnectedMatch || - // As well, disconnected nodes are said to be in a document - // fragment in IE 9 - elem.document && elem.document.nodeType !== 11 ) { - return ret; - } - } catch (e) {} - } - - return Sizzle( expr, document, null, [ elem ] ).length > 0; -}; - -Sizzle.contains = function( context, elem ) { - // Set document vars if needed - if ( ( context.ownerDocument || context ) !== document ) { - setDocument( context ); - } - return contains( context, elem ); -}; - -Sizzle.attr = function( elem, name ) { - // Set document vars if needed - if ( ( elem.ownerDocument || elem ) !== document ) { - setDocument( elem ); - } - - var fn = Expr.attrHandle[ name.toLowerCase() ], - // Don't get fooled by Object.prototype properties (jQuery #13807) - val = fn && hasOwn.call( Expr.attrHandle, name.toLowerCase() ) ? - fn( elem, name, !documentIsHTML ) : - undefined; - - return val !== undefined ? - val : - support.attributes || !documentIsHTML ? - elem.getAttribute( name ) : - (val = elem.getAttributeNode(name)) && val.specified ? - val.value : - null; -}; - -Sizzle.escape = function( sel ) { - return (sel + "").replace( rcssescape, fcssescape ); -}; - -Sizzle.error = function( msg ) { - throw new Error( "Syntax error, unrecognized expression: " + msg ); -}; - -/** - * Document sorting and removing duplicates - * @param {ArrayLike} results - */ -Sizzle.uniqueSort = function( results ) { - var elem, - duplicates = [], - j = 0, - i = 0; - - // Unless we *know* we can detect duplicates, assume their presence - hasDuplicate = !support.detectDuplicates; - sortInput = !support.sortStable && results.slice( 0 ); - results.sort( sortOrder ); - - if ( hasDuplicate ) { - while ( (elem = results[i++]) ) { - if ( elem === results[ i ] ) { - j = duplicates.push( i ); - } - } - while ( j-- ) { - results.splice( duplicates[ j ], 1 ); - } - } - - // Clear input after sorting to release objects - // See https://github.com/jquery/sizzle/pull/225 - sortInput = null; - - return results; -}; - -/** - * Utility function for retrieving the text value of an array of DOM nodes - * @param {Array|Element} elem - */ -getText = Sizzle.getText = function( elem ) { - var node, - ret = "", - i = 0, - nodeType = elem.nodeType; - - if ( !nodeType ) { - // If no nodeType, this is expected to be an array - while ( (node = elem[i++]) ) { - // Do not traverse comment nodes - ret += getText( node ); - } - } else if ( nodeType === 1 || nodeType === 9 || nodeType === 11 ) { - // Use textContent for elements - // innerText usage removed for consistency of new lines (jQuery #11153) - if ( typeof elem.textContent === "string" ) { - return elem.textContent; - } else { - // Traverse its children - for ( elem = elem.firstChild; elem; elem = elem.nextSibling ) { - ret += getText( elem ); - } - } - } else if ( nodeType === 3 || nodeType === 4 ) { - return elem.nodeValue; - } - // Do not include comment or processing instruction nodes - - return ret; -}; - -Expr = Sizzle.selectors = { - - // Can be adjusted by the user - cacheLength: 50, - - createPseudo: markFunction, - - match: matchExpr, - - attrHandle: {}, - - find: {}, - - relative: { - ">": { dir: "parentNode", first: true }, - " ": { dir: "parentNode" }, - "+": { dir: "previousSibling", first: true }, - "~": { dir: "previousSibling" } - }, - - preFilter: { - "ATTR": function( match ) { - match[1] = match[1].replace( runescape, funescape ); - - // Move the given value to match[3] whether quoted or unquoted - match[3] = ( match[3] || match[4] || match[5] || "" ).replace( runescape, funescape ); - - if ( match[2] === "~=" ) { - match[3] = " " + match[3] + " "; - } - - return match.slice( 0, 4 ); - }, - - "CHILD": function( match ) { - /* matches from matchExpr["CHILD"] - 1 type (only|nth|...) - 2 what (child|of-type) - 3 argument (even|odd|\d*|\d*n([+-]\d+)?|...) - 4 xn-component of xn+y argument ([+-]?\d*n|) - 5 sign of xn-component - 6 x of xn-component - 7 sign of y-component - 8 y of y-component - */ - match[1] = match[1].toLowerCase(); - - if ( match[1].slice( 0, 3 ) === "nth" ) { - // nth-* requires argument - if ( !match[3] ) { - Sizzle.error( match[0] ); - } - - // numeric x and y parameters for Expr.filter.CHILD - // remember that false/true cast respectively to 0/1 - match[4] = +( match[4] ? match[5] + (match[6] || 1) : 2 * ( match[3] === "even" || match[3] === "odd" ) ); - match[5] = +( ( match[7] + match[8] ) || match[3] === "odd" ); - - // other types prohibit arguments - } else if ( match[3] ) { - Sizzle.error( match[0] ); - } - - return match; - }, - - "PSEUDO": function( match ) { - var excess, - unquoted = !match[6] && match[2]; - - if ( matchExpr["CHILD"].test( match[0] ) ) { - return null; - } - - // Accept quoted arguments as-is - if ( match[3] ) { - match[2] = match[4] || match[5] || ""; - - // Strip excess characters from unquoted arguments - } else if ( unquoted && rpseudo.test( unquoted ) && - // Get excess from tokenize (recursively) - (excess = tokenize( unquoted, true )) && - // advance to the next closing parenthesis - (excess = unquoted.indexOf( ")", unquoted.length - excess ) - unquoted.length) ) { - - // excess is a negative index - match[0] = match[0].slice( 0, excess ); - match[2] = unquoted.slice( 0, excess ); - } - - // Return only captures needed by the pseudo filter method (type and argument) - return match.slice( 0, 3 ); - } - }, - - filter: { - - "TAG": function( nodeNameSelector ) { - var nodeName = nodeNameSelector.replace( runescape, funescape ).toLowerCase(); - return nodeNameSelector === "*" ? - function() { return true; } : - function( elem ) { - return elem.nodeName && elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === nodeName; - }; - }, - - "CLASS": function( className ) { - var pattern = classCache[ className + " " ]; - - return pattern || - (pattern = new RegExp( "(^|" + whitespace + ")" + className + "(" + whitespace + "|$)" )) && - classCache( className, function( elem ) { - return pattern.test( typeof elem.className === "string" && elem.className || typeof elem.getAttribute !== "undefined" && elem.getAttribute("class") || "" ); - }); - }, - - "ATTR": function( name, operator, check ) { - return function( elem ) { - var result = Sizzle.attr( elem, name ); - - if ( result == null ) { - return operator === "!="; - } - if ( !operator ) { - return true; - } - - result += ""; - - return operator === "=" ? result === check : - operator === "!=" ? result !== check : - operator === "^=" ? check && result.indexOf( check ) === 0 : - operator === "*=" ? check && result.indexOf( check ) > -1 : - operator === "$=" ? check && result.slice( -check.length ) === check : - operator === "~=" ? ( " " + result.replace( rwhitespace, " " ) + " " ).indexOf( check ) > -1 : - operator === "|=" ? result === check || result.slice( 0, check.length + 1 ) === check + "-" : - false; - }; - }, - - "CHILD": function( type, what, argument, first, last ) { - var simple = type.slice( 0, 3 ) !== "nth", - forward = type.slice( -4 ) !== "last", - ofType = what === "of-type"; - - return first === 1 && last === 0 ? - - // Shortcut for :nth-*(n) - function( elem ) { - return !!elem.parentNode; - } : - - function( elem, context, xml ) { - var cache, uniqueCache, outerCache, node, nodeIndex, start, - dir = simple !== forward ? "nextSibling" : "previousSibling", - parent = elem.parentNode, - name = ofType && elem.nodeName.toLowerCase(), - useCache = !xml && !ofType, - diff = false; - - if ( parent ) { - - // :(first|last|only)-(child|of-type) - if ( simple ) { - while ( dir ) { - node = elem; - while ( (node = node[ dir ]) ) { - if ( ofType ? - node.nodeName.toLowerCase() === name : - node.nodeType === 1 ) { - - return false; - } - } - // Reverse direction for :only-* (if we haven't yet done so) - start = dir = type === "only" && !start && "nextSibling"; - } - return true; - } - - start = [ forward ? parent.firstChild : parent.lastChild ]; - - // non-xml :nth-child(...) stores cache data on `parent` - if ( forward && useCache ) { - - // Seek `elem` from a previously-cached index - - // ...in a gzip-friendly way - node = parent; - outerCache = node[ expando ] || (node[ expando ] = {}); - - // Support: IE <9 only - // Defend against cloned attroperties (jQuery gh-1709) - uniqueCache = outerCache[ node.uniqueID ] || - (outerCache[ node.uniqueID ] = {}); - - cache = uniqueCache[ type ] || []; - nodeIndex = cache[ 0 ] === dirruns && cache[ 1 ]; - diff = nodeIndex && cache[ 2 ]; - node = nodeIndex && parent.childNodes[ nodeIndex ]; - - while ( (node = ++nodeIndex && node && node[ dir ] || - - // Fallback to seeking `elem` from the start - (diff = nodeIndex = 0) || start.pop()) ) { - - // When found, cache indexes on `parent` and break - if ( node.nodeType === 1 && ++diff && node === elem ) { - uniqueCache[ type ] = [ dirruns, nodeIndex, diff ]; - break; - } - } - - } else { - // Use previously-cached element index if available - if ( useCache ) { - // ...in a gzip-friendly way - node = elem; - outerCache = node[ expando ] || (node[ expando ] = {}); - - // Support: IE <9 only - // Defend against cloned attroperties (jQuery gh-1709) - uniqueCache = outerCache[ node.uniqueID ] || - (outerCache[ node.uniqueID ] = {}); - - cache = uniqueCache[ type ] || []; - nodeIndex = cache[ 0 ] === dirruns && cache[ 1 ]; - diff = nodeIndex; - } - - // xml :nth-child(...) - // or :nth-last-child(...) or :nth(-last)?-of-type(...) - if ( diff === false ) { - // Use the same loop as above to seek `elem` from the start - while ( (node = ++nodeIndex && node && node[ dir ] || - (diff = nodeIndex = 0) || start.pop()) ) { - - if ( ( ofType ? - node.nodeName.toLowerCase() === name : - node.nodeType === 1 ) && - ++diff ) { - - // Cache the index of each encountered element - if ( useCache ) { - outerCache = node[ expando ] || (node[ expando ] = {}); - - // Support: IE <9 only - // Defend against cloned attroperties (jQuery gh-1709) - uniqueCache = outerCache[ node.uniqueID ] || - (outerCache[ node.uniqueID ] = {}); - - uniqueCache[ type ] = [ dirruns, diff ]; - } - - if ( node === elem ) { - break; - } - } - } - } - } - - // Incorporate the offset, then check against cycle size - diff -= last; - return diff === first || ( diff % first === 0 && diff / first >= 0 ); - } - }; - }, - - "PSEUDO": function( pseudo, argument ) { - // pseudo-class names are case-insensitive - // http://www.w3.org/TR/selectors/#pseudo-classes - // Prioritize by case sensitivity in case custom pseudos are added with uppercase letters - // Remember that setFilters inherits from pseudos - var args, - fn = Expr.pseudos[ pseudo ] || Expr.setFilters[ pseudo.toLowerCase() ] || - Sizzle.error( "unsupported pseudo: " + pseudo ); - - // The user may use createPseudo to indicate that - // arguments are needed to create the filter function - // just as Sizzle does - if ( fn[ expando ] ) { - return fn( argument ); - } - - // But maintain support for old signatures - if ( fn.length > 1 ) { - args = [ pseudo, pseudo, "", argument ]; - return Expr.setFilters.hasOwnProperty( pseudo.toLowerCase() ) ? - markFunction(function( seed, matches ) { - var idx, - matched = fn( seed, argument ), - i = matched.length; - while ( i-- ) { - idx = indexOf( seed, matched[i] ); - seed[ idx ] = !( matches[ idx ] = matched[i] ); - } - }) : - function( elem ) { - return fn( elem, 0, args ); - }; - } - - return fn; - } - }, - - pseudos: { - // Potentially complex pseudos - "not": markFunction(function( selector ) { - // Trim the selector passed to compile - // to avoid treating leading and trailing - // spaces as combinators - var input = [], - results = [], - matcher = compile( selector.replace( rtrim, "$1" ) ); - - return matcher[ expando ] ? - markFunction(function( seed, matches, context, xml ) { - var elem, - unmatched = matcher( seed, null, xml, [] ), - i = seed.length; - - // Match elements unmatched by `matcher` - while ( i-- ) { - if ( (elem = unmatched[i]) ) { - seed[i] = !(matches[i] = elem); - } - } - }) : - function( elem, context, xml ) { - input[0] = elem; - matcher( input, null, xml, results ); - // Don't keep the element (issue #299) - input[0] = null; - return !results.pop(); - }; - }), - - "has": markFunction(function( selector ) { - return function( elem ) { - return Sizzle( selector, elem ).length > 0; - }; - }), - - "contains": markFunction(function( text ) { - text = text.replace( runescape, funescape ); - return function( elem ) { - return ( elem.textContent || elem.innerText || getText( elem ) ).indexOf( text ) > -1; - }; - }), - - // "Whether an element is represented by a :lang() selector - // is based solely on the element's language value - // being equal to the identifier C, - // or beginning with the identifier C immediately followed by "-". - // The matching of C against the element's language value is performed case-insensitively. - // The identifier C does not have to be a valid language name." - // http://www.w3.org/TR/selectors/#lang-pseudo - "lang": markFunction( function( lang ) { - // lang value must be a valid identifier - if ( !ridentifier.test(lang || "") ) { - Sizzle.error( "unsupported lang: " + lang ); - } - lang = lang.replace( runescape, funescape ).toLowerCase(); - return function( elem ) { - var elemLang; - do { - if ( (elemLang = documentIsHTML ? - elem.lang : - elem.getAttribute("xml:lang") || elem.getAttribute("lang")) ) { - - elemLang = elemLang.toLowerCase(); - return elemLang === lang || elemLang.indexOf( lang + "-" ) === 0; - } - } while ( (elem = elem.parentNode) && elem.nodeType === 1 ); - return false; - }; - }), - - // Miscellaneous - "target": function( elem ) { - var hash = window.location && window.location.hash; - return hash && hash.slice( 1 ) === elem.id; - }, - - "root": function( elem ) { - return elem === docElem; - }, - - "focus": function( elem ) { - return elem === document.activeElement && (!document.hasFocus || document.hasFocus()) && !!(elem.type || elem.href || ~elem.tabIndex); - }, - - // Boolean properties - "enabled": createDisabledPseudo( false ), - "disabled": createDisabledPseudo( true ), - - "checked": function( elem ) { - // In CSS3, :checked should return both checked and selected elements - // http://www.w3.org/TR/2011/REC-css3-selectors-20110929/#checked - var nodeName = elem.nodeName.toLowerCase(); - return (nodeName === "input" && !!elem.checked) || (nodeName === "option" && !!elem.selected); - }, - - "selected": function( elem ) { - // Accessing this property makes selected-by-default - // options in Safari work properly - if ( elem.parentNode ) { - elem.parentNode.selectedIndex; - } - - return elem.selected === true; - }, - - // Contents - "empty": function( elem ) { - // http://www.w3.org/TR/selectors/#empty-pseudo - // :empty is negated by element (1) or content nodes (text: 3; cdata: 4; entity ref: 5), - // but not by others (comment: 8; processing instruction: 7; etc.) - // nodeType < 6 works because attributes (2) do not appear as children - for ( elem = elem.firstChild; elem; elem = elem.nextSibling ) { - if ( elem.nodeType < 6 ) { - return false; - } - } - return true; - }, - - "parent": function( elem ) { - return !Expr.pseudos["empty"]( elem ); - }, - - // Element/input types - "header": function( elem ) { - return rheader.test( elem.nodeName ); - }, - - "input": function( elem ) { - return rinputs.test( elem.nodeName ); - }, - - "button": function( elem ) { - var name = elem.nodeName.toLowerCase(); - return name === "input" && elem.type === "button" || name === "button"; - }, - - "text": function( elem ) { - var attr; - return elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === "input" && - elem.type === "text" && - - // Support: IE<8 - // New HTML5 attribute values (e.g., "search") appear with elem.type === "text" - ( (attr = elem.getAttribute("type")) == null || attr.toLowerCase() === "text" ); - }, - - // Position-in-collection - "first": createPositionalPseudo(function() { - return [ 0 ]; - }), - - "last": createPositionalPseudo(function( matchIndexes, length ) { - return [ length - 1 ]; - }), - - "eq": createPositionalPseudo(function( matchIndexes, length, argument ) { - return [ argument < 0 ? argument + length : argument ]; - }), - - "even": createPositionalPseudo(function( matchIndexes, length ) { - var i = 0; - for ( ; i < length; i += 2 ) { - matchIndexes.push( i ); - } - return matchIndexes; - }), - - "odd": createPositionalPseudo(function( matchIndexes, length ) { - var i = 1; - for ( ; i < length; i += 2 ) { - matchIndexes.push( i ); - } - return matchIndexes; - }), - - "lt": createPositionalPseudo(function( matchIndexes, length, argument ) { - var i = argument < 0 ? argument + length : argument; - for ( ; --i >= 0; ) { - matchIndexes.push( i ); - } - return matchIndexes; - }), - - "gt": createPositionalPseudo(function( matchIndexes, length, argument ) { - var i = argument < 0 ? argument + length : argument; - for ( ; ++i < length; ) { - matchIndexes.push( i ); - } - return matchIndexes; - }) - } -}; - -Expr.pseudos["nth"] = Expr.pseudos["eq"]; - -// Add button/input type pseudos -for ( i in { radio: true, checkbox: true, file: true, password: true, image: true } ) { - Expr.pseudos[ i ] = createInputPseudo( i ); -} -for ( i in { submit: true, reset: true } ) { - Expr.pseudos[ i ] = createButtonPseudo( i ); -} - -// Easy API for creating new setFilters -function setFilters() {} -setFilters.prototype = Expr.filters = Expr.pseudos; -Expr.setFilters = new setFilters(); - -tokenize = Sizzle.tokenize = function( selector, parseOnly ) { - var matched, match, tokens, type, - soFar, groups, preFilters, - cached = tokenCache[ selector + " " ]; - - if ( cached ) { - return parseOnly ? 0 : cached.slice( 0 ); - } - - soFar = selector; - groups = []; - preFilters = Expr.preFilter; - - while ( soFar ) { - - // Comma and first run - if ( !matched || (match = rcomma.exec( soFar )) ) { - if ( match ) { - // Don't consume trailing commas as valid - soFar = soFar.slice( match[0].length ) || soFar; - } - groups.push( (tokens = []) ); - } - - matched = false; - - // Combinators - if ( (match = rcombinators.exec( soFar )) ) { - matched = match.shift(); - tokens.push({ - value: matched, - // Cast descendant combinators to space - type: match[0].replace( rtrim, " " ) - }); - soFar = soFar.slice( matched.length ); - } - - // Filters - for ( type in Expr.filter ) { - if ( (match = matchExpr[ type ].exec( soFar )) && (!preFilters[ type ] || - (match = preFilters[ type ]( match ))) ) { - matched = match.shift(); - tokens.push({ - value: matched, - type: type, - matches: match - }); - soFar = soFar.slice( matched.length ); - } - } - - if ( !matched ) { - break; - } - } - - // Return the length of the invalid excess - // if we're just parsing - // Otherwise, throw an error or return tokens - return parseOnly ? - soFar.length : - soFar ? - Sizzle.error( selector ) : - // Cache the tokens - tokenCache( selector, groups ).slice( 0 ); -}; - -function toSelector( tokens ) { - var i = 0, - len = tokens.length, - selector = ""; - for ( ; i < len; i++ ) { - selector += tokens[i].value; - } - return selector; -} - -function addCombinator( matcher, combinator, base ) { - var dir = combinator.dir, - skip = combinator.next, - key = skip || dir, - checkNonElements = base && key === "parentNode", - doneName = done++; - - return combinator.first ? - // Check against closest ancestor/preceding element - function( elem, context, xml ) { - while ( (elem = elem[ dir ]) ) { - if ( elem.nodeType === 1 || checkNonElements ) { - return matcher( elem, context, xml ); - } - } - return false; - } : - - // Check against all ancestor/preceding elements - function( elem, context, xml ) { - var oldCache, uniqueCache, outerCache, - newCache = [ dirruns, doneName ]; - - // We can't set arbitrary data on XML nodes, so they don't benefit from combinator caching - if ( xml ) { - while ( (elem = elem[ dir ]) ) { - if ( elem.nodeType === 1 || checkNonElements ) { - if ( matcher( elem, context, xml ) ) { - return true; - } - } - } - } else { - while ( (elem = elem[ dir ]) ) { - if ( elem.nodeType === 1 || checkNonElements ) { - outerCache = elem[ expando ] || (elem[ expando ] = {}); - - // Support: IE <9 only - // Defend against cloned attroperties (jQuery gh-1709) - uniqueCache = outerCache[ elem.uniqueID ] || (outerCache[ elem.uniqueID ] = {}); - - if ( skip && skip === elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() ) { - elem = elem[ dir ] || elem; - } else if ( (oldCache = uniqueCache[ key ]) && - oldCache[ 0 ] === dirruns && oldCache[ 1 ] === doneName ) { - - // Assign to newCache so results back-propagate to previous elements - return (newCache[ 2 ] = oldCache[ 2 ]); - } else { - // Reuse newcache so results back-propagate to previous elements - uniqueCache[ key ] = newCache; - - // A match means we're done; a fail means we have to keep checking - if ( (newCache[ 2 ] = matcher( elem, context, xml )) ) { - return true; - } - } - } - } - } - return false; - }; -} - -function elementMatcher( matchers ) { - return matchers.length > 1 ? - function( elem, context, xml ) { - var i = matchers.length; - while ( i-- ) { - if ( !matchers[i]( elem, context, xml ) ) { - return false; - } - } - return true; - } : - matchers[0]; -} - -function multipleContexts( selector, contexts, results ) { - var i = 0, - len = contexts.length; - for ( ; i < len; i++ ) { - Sizzle( selector, contexts[i], results ); - } - return results; -} - -function condense( unmatched, map, filter, context, xml ) { - var elem, - newUnmatched = [], - i = 0, - len = unmatched.length, - mapped = map != null; - - for ( ; i < len; i++ ) { - if ( (elem = unmatched[i]) ) { - if ( !filter || filter( elem, context, xml ) ) { - newUnmatched.push( elem ); - if ( mapped ) { - map.push( i ); - } - } - } - } - - return newUnmatched; -} - -function setMatcher( preFilter, selector, matcher, postFilter, postFinder, postSelector ) { - if ( postFilter && !postFilter[ expando ] ) { - postFilter = setMatcher( postFilter ); - } - if ( postFinder && !postFinder[ expando ] ) { - postFinder = setMatcher( postFinder, postSelector ); - } - return markFunction(function( seed, results, context, xml ) { - var temp, i, elem, - preMap = [], - postMap = [], - preexisting = results.length, - - // Get initial elements from seed or context - elems = seed || multipleContexts( selector || "*", context.nodeType ? [ context ] : context, [] ), - - // Prefilter to get matcher input, preserving a map for seed-results synchronization - matcherIn = preFilter && ( seed || !selector ) ? - condense( elems, preMap, preFilter, context, xml ) : - elems, - - matcherOut = matcher ? - // If we have a postFinder, or filtered seed, or non-seed postFilter or preexisting results, - postFinder || ( seed ? preFilter : preexisting || postFilter ) ? - - // ...intermediate processing is necessary - [] : - - // ...otherwise use results directly - results : - matcherIn; - - // Find primary matches - if ( matcher ) { - matcher( matcherIn, matcherOut, context, xml ); - } - - // Apply postFilter - if ( postFilter ) { - temp = condense( matcherOut, postMap ); - postFilter( temp, [], context, xml ); - - // Un-match failing elements by moving them back to matcherIn - i = temp.length; - while ( i-- ) { - if ( (elem = temp[i]) ) { - matcherOut[ postMap[i] ] = !(matcherIn[ postMap[i] ] = elem); - } - } - } - - if ( seed ) { - if ( postFinder || preFilter ) { - if ( postFinder ) { - // Get the final matcherOut by condensing this intermediate into postFinder contexts - temp = []; - i = matcherOut.length; - while ( i-- ) { - if ( (elem = matcherOut[i]) ) { - // Restore matcherIn since elem is not yet a final match - temp.push( (matcherIn[i] = elem) ); - } - } - postFinder( null, (matcherOut = []), temp, xml ); - } - - // Move matched elements from seed to results to keep them synchronized - i = matcherOut.length; - while ( i-- ) { - if ( (elem = matcherOut[i]) && - (temp = postFinder ? indexOf( seed, elem ) : preMap[i]) > -1 ) { - - seed[temp] = !(results[temp] = elem); - } - } - } - - // Add elements to results, through postFinder if defined - } else { - matcherOut = condense( - matcherOut === results ? - matcherOut.splice( preexisting, matcherOut.length ) : - matcherOut - ); - if ( postFinder ) { - postFinder( null, results, matcherOut, xml ); - } else { - push.apply( results, matcherOut ); - } - } - }); -} - -function matcherFromTokens( tokens ) { - var checkContext, matcher, j, - len = tokens.length, - leadingRelative = Expr.relative[ tokens[0].type ], - implicitRelative = leadingRelative || Expr.relative[" "], - i = leadingRelative ? 1 : 0, - - // The foundational matcher ensures that elements are reachable from top-level context(s) - matchContext = addCombinator( function( elem ) { - return elem === checkContext; - }, implicitRelative, true ), - matchAnyContext = addCombinator( function( elem ) { - return indexOf( checkContext, elem ) > -1; - }, implicitRelative, true ), - matchers = [ function( elem, context, xml ) { - var ret = ( !leadingRelative && ( xml || context !== outermostContext ) ) || ( - (checkContext = context).nodeType ? - matchContext( elem, context, xml ) : - matchAnyContext( elem, context, xml ) ); - // Avoid hanging onto element (issue #299) - checkContext = null; - return ret; - } ]; - - for ( ; i < len; i++ ) { - if ( (matcher = Expr.relative[ tokens[i].type ]) ) { - matchers = [ addCombinator(elementMatcher( matchers ), matcher) ]; - } else { - matcher = Expr.filter[ tokens[i].type ].apply( null, tokens[i].matches ); - - // Return special upon seeing a positional matcher - if ( matcher[ expando ] ) { - // Find the next relative operator (if any) for proper handling - j = ++i; - for ( ; j < len; j++ ) { - if ( Expr.relative[ tokens[j].type ] ) { - break; - } - } - return setMatcher( - i > 1 && elementMatcher( matchers ), - i > 1 && toSelector( - // If the preceding token was a descendant combinator, insert an implicit any-element `*` - tokens.slice( 0, i - 1 ).concat({ value: tokens[ i - 2 ].type === " " ? "*" : "" }) - ).replace( rtrim, "$1" ), - matcher, - i < j && matcherFromTokens( tokens.slice( i, j ) ), - j < len && matcherFromTokens( (tokens = tokens.slice( j )) ), - j < len && toSelector( tokens ) - ); - } - matchers.push( matcher ); - } - } - - return elementMatcher( matchers ); -} - -function matcherFromGroupMatchers( elementMatchers, setMatchers ) { - var bySet = setMatchers.length > 0, - byElement = elementMatchers.length > 0, - superMatcher = function( seed, context, xml, results, outermost ) { - var elem, j, matcher, - matchedCount = 0, - i = "0", - unmatched = seed && [], - setMatched = [], - contextBackup = outermostContext, - // We must always have either seed elements or outermost context - elems = seed || byElement && Expr.find["TAG"]( "*", outermost ), - // Use integer dirruns iff this is the outermost matcher - dirrunsUnique = (dirruns += contextBackup == null ? 1 : Math.random() || 0.1), - len = elems.length; - - if ( outermost ) { - outermostContext = context === document || context || outermost; - } - - // Add elements passing elementMatchers directly to results - // Support: IE<9, Safari - // Tolerate NodeList properties (IE: "length"; Safari: ) matching elements by id - for ( ; i !== len && (elem = elems[i]) != null; i++ ) { - if ( byElement && elem ) { - j = 0; - if ( !context && elem.ownerDocument !== document ) { - setDocument( elem ); - xml = !documentIsHTML; - } - while ( (matcher = elementMatchers[j++]) ) { - if ( matcher( elem, context || document, xml) ) { - results.push( elem ); - break; - } - } - if ( outermost ) { - dirruns = dirrunsUnique; - } - } - - // Track unmatched elements for set filters - if ( bySet ) { - // They will have gone through all possible matchers - if ( (elem = !matcher && elem) ) { - matchedCount--; - } - - // Lengthen the array for every element, matched or not - if ( seed ) { - unmatched.push( elem ); - } - } - } - - // `i` is now the count of elements visited above, and adding it to `matchedCount` - // makes the latter nonnegative. - matchedCount += i; - - // Apply set filters to unmatched elements - // NOTE: This can be skipped if there are no unmatched elements (i.e., `matchedCount` - // equals `i`), unless we didn't visit _any_ elements in the above loop because we have - // no element matchers and no seed. - // Incrementing an initially-string "0" `i` allows `i` to remain a string only in that - // case, which will result in a "00" `matchedCount` that differs from `i` but is also - // numerically zero. - if ( bySet && i !== matchedCount ) { - j = 0; - while ( (matcher = setMatchers[j++]) ) { - matcher( unmatched, setMatched, context, xml ); - } - - if ( seed ) { - // Reintegrate element matches to eliminate the need for sorting - if ( matchedCount > 0 ) { - while ( i-- ) { - if ( !(unmatched[i] || setMatched[i]) ) { - setMatched[i] = pop.call( results ); - } - } - } - - // Discard index placeholder values to get only actual matches - setMatched = condense( setMatched ); - } - - // Add matches to results - push.apply( results, setMatched ); - - // Seedless set matches succeeding multiple successful matchers stipulate sorting - if ( outermost && !seed && setMatched.length > 0 && - ( matchedCount + setMatchers.length ) > 1 ) { - - Sizzle.uniqueSort( results ); - } - } - - // Override manipulation of globals by nested matchers - if ( outermost ) { - dirruns = dirrunsUnique; - outermostContext = contextBackup; - } - - return unmatched; - }; - - return bySet ? - markFunction( superMatcher ) : - superMatcher; -} - -compile = Sizzle.compile = function( selector, match /* Internal Use Only */ ) { - var i, - setMatchers = [], - elementMatchers = [], - cached = compilerCache[ selector + " " ]; - - if ( !cached ) { - // Generate a function of recursive functions that can be used to check each element - if ( !match ) { - match = tokenize( selector ); - } - i = match.length; - while ( i-- ) { - cached = matcherFromTokens( match[i] ); - if ( cached[ expando ] ) { - setMatchers.push( cached ); - } else { - elementMatchers.push( cached ); - } - } - - // Cache the compiled function - cached = compilerCache( selector, matcherFromGroupMatchers( elementMatchers, setMatchers ) ); - - // Save selector and tokenization - cached.selector = selector; - } - return cached; -}; - -/** - * A low-level selection function that works with Sizzle's compiled - * selector functions - * @param {String|Function} selector A selector or a pre-compiled - * selector function built with Sizzle.compile - * @param {Element} context - * @param {Array} [results] - * @param {Array} [seed] A set of elements to match against - */ -select = Sizzle.select = function( selector, context, results, seed ) { - var i, tokens, token, type, find, - compiled = typeof selector === "function" && selector, - match = !seed && tokenize( (selector = compiled.selector || selector) ); - - results = results || []; - - // Try to minimize operations if there is only one selector in the list and no seed - // (the latter of which guarantees us context) - if ( match.length === 1 ) { - - // Reduce context if the leading compound selector is an ID - tokens = match[0] = match[0].slice( 0 ); - if ( tokens.length > 2 && (token = tokens[0]).type === "ID" && - context.nodeType === 9 && documentIsHTML && Expr.relative[ tokens[1].type ] ) { - - context = ( Expr.find["ID"]( token.matches[0].replace(runescape, funescape), context ) || [] )[0]; - if ( !context ) { - return results; - - // Precompiled matchers will still verify ancestry, so step up a level - } else if ( compiled ) { - context = context.parentNode; - } - - selector = selector.slice( tokens.shift().value.length ); - } - - // Fetch a seed set for right-to-left matching - i = matchExpr["needsContext"].test( selector ) ? 0 : tokens.length; - while ( i-- ) { - token = tokens[i]; - - // Abort if we hit a combinator - if ( Expr.relative[ (type = token.type) ] ) { - break; - } - if ( (find = Expr.find[ type ]) ) { - // Search, expanding context for leading sibling combinators - if ( (seed = find( - token.matches[0].replace( runescape, funescape ), - rsibling.test( tokens[0].type ) && testContext( context.parentNode ) || context - )) ) { - - // If seed is empty or no tokens remain, we can return early - tokens.splice( i, 1 ); - selector = seed.length && toSelector( tokens ); - if ( !selector ) { - push.apply( results, seed ); - return results; - } - - break; - } - } - } - } - - // Compile and execute a filtering function if one is not provided - // Provide `match` to avoid retokenization if we modified the selector above - ( compiled || compile( selector, match ) )( - seed, - context, - !documentIsHTML, - results, - !context || rsibling.test( selector ) && testContext( context.parentNode ) || context - ); - return results; -}; - -// One-time assignments - -// Sort stability -support.sortStable = expando.split("").sort( sortOrder ).join("") === expando; - -// Support: Chrome 14-35+ -// Always assume duplicates if they aren't passed to the comparison function -support.detectDuplicates = !!hasDuplicate; - -// Initialize against the default document -setDocument(); - -// Support: Webkit<537.32 - Safari 6.0.3/Chrome 25 (fixed in Chrome 27) -// Detached nodes confoundingly follow *each other* -support.sortDetached = assert(function( el ) { - // Should return 1, but returns 4 (following) - return el.compareDocumentPosition( document.createElement("fieldset") ) & 1; -}); - -// Support: IE<8 -// Prevent attribute/property "interpolation" -// https://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms536429%28VS.85%29.aspx -if ( !assert(function( el ) { - el.innerHTML = ""; - return el.firstChild.getAttribute("href") === "#" ; -}) ) { - addHandle( "type|href|height|width", function( elem, name, isXML ) { - if ( !isXML ) { - return elem.getAttribute( name, name.toLowerCase() === "type" ? 1 : 2 ); - } - }); -} - -// Support: IE<9 -// Use defaultValue in place of getAttribute("value") -if ( !support.attributes || !assert(function( el ) { - el.innerHTML = ""; - el.firstChild.setAttribute( "value", "" ); - return el.firstChild.getAttribute( "value" ) === ""; -}) ) { - addHandle( "value", function( elem, name, isXML ) { - if ( !isXML && elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === "input" ) { - return elem.defaultValue; - } - }); -} - -// Support: IE<9 -// Use getAttributeNode to fetch booleans when getAttribute lies -if ( !assert(function( el ) { - return el.getAttribute("disabled") == null; -}) ) { - addHandle( booleans, function( elem, name, isXML ) { - var val; - if ( !isXML ) { - return elem[ name ] === true ? name.toLowerCase() : - (val = elem.getAttributeNode( name )) && val.specified ? - val.value : - null; - } - }); -} - -return Sizzle; - -})( window ); - - - -jQuery.find = Sizzle; -jQuery.expr = Sizzle.selectors; - -// Deprecated -jQuery.expr[ ":" ] = jQuery.expr.pseudos; -jQuery.uniqueSort = jQuery.unique = Sizzle.uniqueSort; -jQuery.text = Sizzle.getText; -jQuery.isXMLDoc = Sizzle.isXML; -jQuery.contains = Sizzle.contains; -jQuery.escapeSelector = Sizzle.escape; - - - - -var dir = function( elem, dir, until ) { - var matched = [], - truncate = until !== undefined; - - while ( ( elem = elem[ dir ] ) && elem.nodeType !== 9 ) { - if ( elem.nodeType === 1 ) { - if ( truncate && jQuery( elem ).is( until ) ) { - break; - } - matched.push( elem ); - } - } - return matched; -}; - - -var siblings = function( n, elem ) { - var matched = []; - - for ( ; n; n = n.nextSibling ) { - if ( n.nodeType === 1 && n !== elem ) { - matched.push( n ); - } - } - - return matched; -}; - - -var rneedsContext = jQuery.expr.match.needsContext; - - - -function nodeName( elem, name ) { - - return elem.nodeName && elem.nodeName.toLowerCase() === name.toLowerCase(); - -}; -var rsingleTag = ( /^<([a-z][^\/\0>:\x20\t\r\n\f]*)[\x20\t\r\n\f]*\/?>(?:<\/\1>|)$/i ); - - - -var risSimple = /^.[^:#\[\.,]*$/; - -// Implement the identical functionality for filter and not -function winnow( elements, qualifier, not ) { - if ( jQuery.isFunction( qualifier ) ) { - return jQuery.grep( elements, function( elem, i ) { - return !!qualifier.call( elem, i, elem ) !== not; - } ); - } - - // Single element - if ( qualifier.nodeType ) { - return jQuery.grep( elements, function( elem ) { - return ( elem === qualifier ) !== not; - } ); - } - - // Arraylike of elements (jQuery, arguments, Array) - if ( typeof qualifier !== "string" ) { - return jQuery.grep( elements, function( elem ) { - return ( indexOf.call( qualifier, elem ) > -1 ) !== not; - } ); - } - - // Simple selector that can be filtered directly, removing non-Elements - if ( risSimple.test( qualifier ) ) { - return jQuery.filter( qualifier, elements, not ); - } - - // Complex selector, compare the two sets, removing non-Elements - qualifier = jQuery.filter( qualifier, elements ); - return jQuery.grep( elements, function( elem ) { - return ( indexOf.call( qualifier, elem ) > -1 ) !== not && elem.nodeType === 1; - } ); -} - -jQuery.filter = function( expr, elems, not ) { - var elem = elems[ 0 ]; - - if ( not ) { - expr = ":not(" + expr + ")"; - } - - if ( elems.length === 1 && elem.nodeType === 1 ) { - return jQuery.find.matchesSelector( elem, expr ) ? [ elem ] : []; - } - - return jQuery.find.matches( expr, jQuery.grep( elems, function( elem ) { - return elem.nodeType === 1; - } ) ); -}; - -jQuery.fn.extend( { - find: function( selector ) { - var i, ret, - len = this.length, - self = this; - - if ( typeof selector !== "string" ) { - return this.pushStack( jQuery( selector ).filter( function() { - for ( i = 0; i < len; i++ ) { - if ( jQuery.contains( self[ i ], this ) ) { - return true; - } - } - } ) ); - } - - ret = this.pushStack( [] ); - - for ( i = 0; i < len; i++ ) { - jQuery.find( selector, self[ i ], ret ); - } - - return len > 1 ? jQuery.uniqueSort( ret ) : ret; - }, - filter: function( selector ) { - return this.pushStack( winnow( this, selector || [], false ) ); - }, - not: function( selector ) { - return this.pushStack( winnow( this, selector || [], true ) ); - }, - is: function( selector ) { - return !!winnow( - this, - - // If this is a positional/relative selector, check membership in the returned set - // so $("p:first").is("p:last") won't return true for a doc with two "p". - typeof selector === "string" && rneedsContext.test( selector ) ? - jQuery( selector ) : - selector || [], - false - ).length; - } -} ); - - -// Initialize a jQuery object - - -// A central reference to the root jQuery(document) -var rootjQuery, - - // A simple way to check for HTML strings - // Prioritize #id over to avoid XSS via location.hash (#9521) - // Strict HTML recognition (#11290: must start with <) - // Shortcut simple #id case for speed - rquickExpr = /^(?:\s*(<[\w\W]+>)[^>]*|#([\w-]+))$/, - - init = jQuery.fn.init = function( selector, context, root ) { - var match, elem; - - // HANDLE: $(""), $(null), $(undefined), $(false) - if ( !selector ) { - return this; - } - - // Method init() accepts an alternate rootjQuery - // so migrate can support jQuery.sub (gh-2101) - root = root || rootjQuery; - - // Handle HTML strings - if ( typeof selector === "string" ) { - if ( selector[ 0 ] === "<" && - selector[ selector.length - 1 ] === ">" && - selector.length >= 3 ) { - - // Assume that strings that start and end with <> are HTML and skip the regex check - match = [ null, selector, null ]; - - } else { - match = rquickExpr.exec( selector ); - } - - // Match html or make sure no context is specified for #id - if ( match && ( match[ 1 ] || !context ) ) { - - // HANDLE: $(html) -> $(array) - if ( match[ 1 ] ) { - context = context instanceof jQuery ? context[ 0 ] : context; - - // Option to run scripts is true for back-compat - // Intentionally let the error be thrown if parseHTML is not present - jQuery.merge( this, jQuery.parseHTML( - match[ 1 ], - context && context.nodeType ? context.ownerDocument || context : document, - true - ) ); - - // HANDLE: $(html, props) - if ( rsingleTag.test( match[ 1 ] ) && jQuery.isPlainObject( context ) ) { - for ( match in context ) { - - // Properties of context are called as methods if possible - if ( jQuery.isFunction( this[ match ] ) ) { - this[ match ]( context[ match ] ); - - // ...and otherwise set as attributes - } else { - this.attr( match, context[ match ] ); - } - } - } - - return this; - - // HANDLE: $(#id) - } else { - elem = document.getElementById( match[ 2 ] ); - - if ( elem ) { - - // Inject the element directly into the jQuery object - this[ 0 ] = elem; - this.length = 1; - } - return this; - } - - // HANDLE: $(expr, $(...)) - } else if ( !context || context.jquery ) { - return ( context || root ).find( selector ); - - // HANDLE: $(expr, context) - // (which is just equivalent to: $(context).find(expr) - } else { - return this.constructor( context ).find( selector ); - } - - // HANDLE: $(DOMElement) - } else if ( selector.nodeType ) { - this[ 0 ] = selector; - this.length = 1; - return this; - - // HANDLE: $(function) - // Shortcut for document ready - } else if ( jQuery.isFunction( selector ) ) { - return root.ready !== undefined ? - root.ready( selector ) : - - // Execute immediately if ready is not present - selector( jQuery ); - } - - return jQuery.makeArray( selector, this ); - }; - -// Give the init function the jQuery prototype for later instantiation -init.prototype = jQuery.fn; - -// Initialize central reference -rootjQuery = jQuery( document ); - - -var rparentsprev = /^(?:parents|prev(?:Until|All))/, - - // Methods guaranteed to produce a unique set when starting from a unique set - guaranteedUnique = { - children: true, - contents: true, - next: true, - prev: true - }; - -jQuery.fn.extend( { - has: function( target ) { - var targets = jQuery( target, this ), - l = targets.length; - - return this.filter( function() { - var i = 0; - for ( ; i < l; i++ ) { - if ( jQuery.contains( this, targets[ i ] ) ) { - return true; - } - } - } ); - }, - - closest: function( selectors, context ) { - var cur, - i = 0, - l = this.length, - matched = [], - targets = typeof selectors !== "string" && jQuery( selectors ); - - // Positional selectors never match, since there's no _selection_ context - if ( !rneedsContext.test( selectors ) ) { - for ( ; i < l; i++ ) { - for ( cur = this[ i ]; cur && cur !== context; cur = cur.parentNode ) { - - // Always skip document fragments - if ( cur.nodeType < 11 && ( targets ? - targets.index( cur ) > -1 : - - // Don't pass non-elements to Sizzle - cur.nodeType === 1 && - jQuery.find.matchesSelector( cur, selectors ) ) ) { - - matched.push( cur ); - break; - } - } - } - } - - return this.pushStack( matched.length > 1 ? jQuery.uniqueSort( matched ) : matched ); - }, - - // Determine the position of an element within the set - index: function( elem ) { - - // No argument, return index in parent - if ( !elem ) { - return ( this[ 0 ] && this[ 0 ].parentNode ) ? this.first().prevAll().length : -1; - } - - // Index in selector - if ( typeof elem === "string" ) { - return indexOf.call( jQuery( elem ), this[ 0 ] ); - } - - // Locate the position of the desired element - return indexOf.call( this, - - // If it receives a jQuery object, the first element is used - elem.jquery ? elem[ 0 ] : elem - ); - }, - - add: function( selector, context ) { - return this.pushStack( - jQuery.uniqueSort( - jQuery.merge( this.get(), jQuery( selector, context ) ) - ) - ); - }, - - addBack: function( selector ) { - return this.add( selector == null ? - this.prevObject : this.prevObject.filter( selector ) - ); - } -} ); - -function sibling( cur, dir ) { - while ( ( cur = cur[ dir ] ) && cur.nodeType !== 1 ) {} - return cur; -} - -jQuery.each( { - parent: function( elem ) { - var parent = elem.parentNode; - return parent && parent.nodeType !== 11 ? parent : null; - }, - parents: function( elem ) { - return dir( elem, "parentNode" ); - }, - parentsUntil: function( elem, i, until ) { - return dir( elem, "parentNode", until ); - }, - next: function( elem ) { - return sibling( elem, "nextSibling" ); - }, - prev: function( elem ) { - return sibling( elem, "previousSibling" ); - }, - nextAll: function( elem ) { - return dir( elem, "nextSibling" ); - }, - prevAll: function( elem ) { - return dir( elem, "previousSibling" ); - }, - nextUntil: function( elem, i, until ) { - return dir( elem, "nextSibling", until ); - }, - prevUntil: function( elem, i, until ) { - return dir( elem, "previousSibling", until ); - }, - siblings: function( elem ) { - return siblings( ( elem.parentNode || {} ).firstChild, elem ); - }, - children: function( elem ) { - return siblings( elem.firstChild ); - }, - contents: function( elem ) { - if ( nodeName( elem, "iframe" ) ) { - return elem.contentDocument; - } - - // Support: IE 9 - 11 only, iOS 7 only, Android Browser <=4.3 only - // Treat the template element as a regular one in browsers that - // don't support it. - if ( nodeName( elem, "template" ) ) { - elem = elem.content || elem; - } - - return jQuery.merge( [], elem.childNodes ); - } -}, function( name, fn ) { - jQuery.fn[ name ] = function( until, selector ) { - var matched = jQuery.map( this, fn, until ); - - if ( name.slice( -5 ) !== "Until" ) { - selector = until; - } - - if ( selector && typeof selector === "string" ) { - matched = jQuery.filter( selector, matched ); - } - - if ( this.length > 1 ) { - - // Remove duplicates - if ( !guaranteedUnique[ name ] ) { - jQuery.uniqueSort( matched ); - } - - // Reverse order for parents* and prev-derivatives - if ( rparentsprev.test( name ) ) { - matched.reverse(); - } - } - - return this.pushStack( matched ); - }; -} ); -var rnothtmlwhite = ( /[^\x20\t\r\n\f]+/g ); - - - -// Convert String-formatted options into Object-formatted ones -function createOptions( options ) { - var object = {}; - jQuery.each( options.match( rnothtmlwhite ) || [], function( _, flag ) { - object[ flag ] = true; - } ); - return object; -} - -/* - * Create a callback list using the following parameters: - * - * options: an optional list of space-separated options that will change how - * the callback list behaves or a more traditional option object - * - * By default a callback list will act like an event callback list and can be - * "fired" multiple times. - * - * Possible options: - * - * once: will ensure the callback list can only be fired once (like a Deferred) - * - * memory: will keep track of previous values and will call any callback added - * after the list has been fired right away with the latest "memorized" - * values (like a Deferred) - * - * unique: will ensure a callback can only be added once (no duplicate in the list) - * - * stopOnFalse: interrupt callings when a callback returns false - * - */ -jQuery.Callbacks = function( options ) { - - // Convert options from String-formatted to Object-formatted if needed - // (we check in cache first) - options = typeof options === "string" ? - createOptions( options ) : - jQuery.extend( {}, options ); - - var // Flag to know if list is currently firing - firing, - - // Last fire value for non-forgettable lists - memory, - - // Flag to know if list was already fired - fired, - - // Flag to prevent firing - locked, - - // Actual callback list - list = [], - - // Queue of execution data for repeatable lists - queue = [], - - // Index of currently firing callback (modified by add/remove as needed) - firingIndex = -1, - - // Fire callbacks - fire = function() { - - // Enforce single-firing - locked = locked || options.once; - - // Execute callbacks for all pending executions, - // respecting firingIndex overrides and runtime changes - fired = firing = true; - for ( ; queue.length; firingIndex = -1 ) { - memory = queue.shift(); - while ( ++firingIndex < list.length ) { - - // Run callback and check for early termination - if ( list[ firingIndex ].apply( memory[ 0 ], memory[ 1 ] ) === false && - options.stopOnFalse ) { - - // Jump to end and forget the data so .add doesn't re-fire - firingIndex = list.length; - memory = false; - } - } - } - - // Forget the data if we're done with it - if ( !options.memory ) { - memory = false; - } - - firing = false; - - // Clean up if we're done firing for good - if ( locked ) { - - // Keep an empty list if we have data for future add calls - if ( memory ) { - list = []; - - // Otherwise, this object is spent - } else { - list = ""; - } - } - }, - - // Actual Callbacks object - self = { - - // Add a callback or a collection of callbacks to the list - add: function() { - if ( list ) { - - // If we have memory from a past run, we should fire after adding - if ( memory && !firing ) { - firingIndex = list.length - 1; - queue.push( memory ); - } - - ( function add( args ) { - jQuery.each( args, function( _, arg ) { - if ( jQuery.isFunction( arg ) ) { - if ( !options.unique || !self.has( arg ) ) { - list.push( arg ); - } - } else if ( arg && arg.length && jQuery.type( arg ) !== "string" ) { - - // Inspect recursively - add( arg ); - } - } ); - } )( arguments ); - - if ( memory && !firing ) { - fire(); - } - } - return this; - }, - - // Remove a callback from the list - remove: function() { - jQuery.each( arguments, function( _, arg ) { - var index; - while ( ( index = jQuery.inArray( arg, list, index ) ) > -1 ) { - list.splice( index, 1 ); - - // Handle firing indexes - if ( index <= firingIndex ) { - firingIndex--; - } - } - } ); - return this; - }, - - // Check if a given callback is in the list. - // If no argument is given, return whether or not list has callbacks attached. - has: function( fn ) { - return fn ? - jQuery.inArray( fn, list ) > -1 : - list.length > 0; - }, - - // Remove all callbacks from the list - empty: function() { - if ( list ) { - list = []; - } - return this; - }, - - // Disable .fire and .add - // Abort any current/pending executions - // Clear all callbacks and values - disable: function() { - locked = queue = []; - list = memory = ""; - return this; - }, - disabled: function() { - return !list; - }, - - // Disable .fire - // Also disable .add unless we have memory (since it would have no effect) - // Abort any pending executions - lock: function() { - locked = queue = []; - if ( !memory && !firing ) { - list = memory = ""; - } - return this; - }, - locked: function() { - return !!locked; - }, - - // Call all callbacks with the given context and arguments - fireWith: function( context, args ) { - if ( !locked ) { - args = args || []; - args = [ context, args.slice ? args.slice() : args ]; - queue.push( args ); - if ( !firing ) { - fire(); - } - } - return this; - }, - - // Call all the callbacks with the given arguments - fire: function() { - self.fireWith( this, arguments ); - return this; - }, - - // To know if the callbacks have already been called at least once - fired: function() { - return !!fired; - } - }; - - return self; -}; - - -function Identity( v ) { - return v; -} -function Thrower( ex ) { - throw ex; -} - -function adoptValue( value, resolve, reject, noValue ) { - var method; - - try { - - // Check for promise aspect first to privilege synchronous behavior - if ( value && jQuery.isFunction( ( method = value.promise ) ) ) { - method.call( value ).done( resolve ).fail( reject ); - - // Other thenables - } else if ( value && jQuery.isFunction( ( method = value.then ) ) ) { - method.call( value, resolve, reject ); - - // Other non-thenables - } else { - - // Control `resolve` arguments by letting Array#slice cast boolean `noValue` to integer: - // * false: [ value ].slice( 0 ) => resolve( value ) - // * true: [ value ].slice( 1 ) => resolve() - resolve.apply( undefined, [ value ].slice( noValue ) ); - } - - // For Promises/A+, convert exceptions into rejections - // Since jQuery.when doesn't unwrap thenables, we can skip the extra checks appearing in - // Deferred#then to conditionally suppress rejection. - } catch ( value ) { - - // Support: Android 4.0 only - // Strict mode functions invoked without .call/.apply get global-object context - reject.apply( undefined, [ value ] ); - } -} - -jQuery.extend( { - - Deferred: function( func ) { - var tuples = [ - - // action, add listener, callbacks, - // ... .then handlers, argument index, [final state] - [ "notify", "progress", jQuery.Callbacks( "memory" ), - jQuery.Callbacks( "memory" ), 2 ], - [ "resolve", "done", jQuery.Callbacks( "once memory" ), - jQuery.Callbacks( "once memory" ), 0, "resolved" ], - [ "reject", "fail", jQuery.Callbacks( "once memory" ), - jQuery.Callbacks( "once memory" ), 1, "rejected" ] - ], - state = "pending", - promise = { - state: function() { - return state; - }, - always: function() { - deferred.done( arguments ).fail( arguments ); - return this; - }, - "catch": function( fn ) { - return promise.then( null, fn ); - }, - - // Keep pipe for back-compat - pipe: function( /* fnDone, fnFail, fnProgress */ ) { - var fns = arguments; - - return jQuery.Deferred( function( newDefer ) { - jQuery.each( tuples, function( i, tuple ) { - - // Map tuples (progress, done, fail) to arguments (done, fail, progress) - var fn = jQuery.isFunction( fns[ tuple[ 4 ] ] ) && fns[ tuple[ 4 ] ]; - - // deferred.progress(function() { bind to newDefer or newDefer.notify }) - // deferred.done(function() { bind to newDefer or newDefer.resolve }) - // deferred.fail(function() { bind to newDefer or newDefer.reject }) - deferred[ tuple[ 1 ] ]( function() { - var returned = fn && fn.apply( this, arguments ); - if ( returned && jQuery.isFunction( returned.promise ) ) { - returned.promise() - .progress( newDefer.notify ) - .done( newDefer.resolve ) - .fail( newDefer.reject ); - } else { - newDefer[ tuple[ 0 ] + "With" ]( - this, - fn ? [ returned ] : arguments - ); - } - } ); - } ); - fns = null; - } ).promise(); - }, - then: function( onFulfilled, onRejected, onProgress ) { - var maxDepth = 0; - function resolve( depth, deferred, handler, special ) { - return function() { - var that = this, - args = arguments, - mightThrow = function() { - var returned, then; - - // Support: Promises/A+ section 2.3.3.3.3 - // https://promisesaplus.com/#point-59 - // Ignore double-resolution attempts - if ( depth < maxDepth ) { - return; - } - - returned = handler.apply( that, args ); - - // Support: Promises/A+ section 2.3.1 - // https://promisesaplus.com/#point-48 - if ( returned === deferred.promise() ) { - throw new TypeError( "Thenable self-resolution" ); - } - - // Support: Promises/A+ sections 2.3.3.1, 3.5 - // https://promisesaplus.com/#point-54 - // https://promisesaplus.com/#point-75 - // Retrieve `then` only once - then = returned && - - // Support: Promises/A+ section 2.3.4 - // https://promisesaplus.com/#point-64 - // Only check objects and functions for thenability - ( typeof returned === "object" || - typeof returned === "function" ) && - returned.then; - - // Handle a returned thenable - if ( jQuery.isFunction( then ) ) { - - // Special processors (notify) just wait for resolution - if ( special ) { - then.call( - returned, - resolve( maxDepth, deferred, Identity, special ), - resolve( maxDepth, deferred, Thrower, special ) - ); - - // Normal processors (resolve) also hook into progress - } else { - - // ...and disregard older resolution values - maxDepth++; - - then.call( - returned, - resolve( maxDepth, deferred, Identity, special ), - resolve( maxDepth, deferred, Thrower, special ), - resolve( maxDepth, deferred, Identity, - deferred.notifyWith ) - ); - } - - // Handle all other returned values - } else { - - // Only substitute handlers pass on context - // and multiple values (non-spec behavior) - if ( handler !== Identity ) { - that = undefined; - args = [ returned ]; - } - - // Process the value(s) - // Default process is resolve - ( special || deferred.resolveWith )( that, args ); - } - }, - - // Only normal processors (resolve) catch and reject exceptions - process = special ? - mightThrow : - function() { - try { - mightThrow(); - } catch ( e ) { - - if ( jQuery.Deferred.exceptionHook ) { - jQuery.Deferred.exceptionHook( e, - process.stackTrace ); - } - - // Support: Promises/A+ section 2.3.3.3.4.1 - // https://promisesaplus.com/#point-61 - // Ignore post-resolution exceptions - if ( depth + 1 >= maxDepth ) { - - // Only substitute handlers pass on context - // and multiple values (non-spec behavior) - if ( handler !== Thrower ) { - that = undefined; - args = [ e ]; - } - - deferred.rejectWith( that, args ); - } - } - }; - - // Support: Promises/A+ section 2.3.3.3.1 - // https://promisesaplus.com/#point-57 - // Re-resolve promises immediately to dodge false rejection from - // subsequent errors - if ( depth ) { - process(); - } else { - - // Call an optional hook to record the stack, in case of exception - // since it's otherwise lost when execution goes async - if ( jQuery.Deferred.getStackHook ) { - process.stackTrace = jQuery.Deferred.getStackHook(); - } - window.setTimeout( process ); - } - }; - } - - return jQuery.Deferred( function( newDefer ) { - - // progress_handlers.add( ... ) - tuples[ 0 ][ 3 ].add( - resolve( - 0, - newDefer, - jQuery.isFunction( onProgress ) ? - onProgress : - Identity, - newDefer.notifyWith - ) - ); - - // fulfilled_handlers.add( ... ) - tuples[ 1 ][ 3 ].add( - resolve( - 0, - newDefer, - jQuery.isFunction( onFulfilled ) ? - onFulfilled : - Identity - ) - ); - - // rejected_handlers.add( ... ) - tuples[ 2 ][ 3 ].add( - resolve( - 0, - newDefer, - jQuery.isFunction( onRejected ) ? - onRejected : - Thrower - ) - ); - } ).promise(); - }, - - // Get a promise for this deferred - // If obj is provided, the promise aspect is added to the object - promise: function( obj ) { - return obj != null ? jQuery.extend( obj, promise ) : promise; - } - }, - deferred = {}; - - // Add list-specific methods - jQuery.each( tuples, function( i, tuple ) { - var list = tuple[ 2 ], - stateString = tuple[ 5 ]; - - // promise.progress = list.add - // promise.done = list.add - // promise.fail = list.add - promise[ tuple[ 1 ] ] = list.add; - - // Handle state - if ( stateString ) { - list.add( - function() { - - // state = "resolved" (i.e., fulfilled) - // state = "rejected" - state = stateString; - }, - - // rejected_callbacks.disable - // fulfilled_callbacks.disable - tuples[ 3 - i ][ 2 ].disable, - - // progress_callbacks.lock - tuples[ 0 ][ 2 ].lock - ); - } - - // progress_handlers.fire - // fulfilled_handlers.fire - // rejected_handlers.fire - list.add( tuple[ 3 ].fire ); - - // deferred.notify = function() { deferred.notifyWith(...) } - // deferred.resolve = function() { deferred.resolveWith(...) } - // deferred.reject = function() { deferred.rejectWith(...) } - deferred[ tuple[ 0 ] ] = function() { - deferred[ tuple[ 0 ] + "With" ]( this === deferred ? undefined : this, arguments ); - return this; - }; - - // deferred.notifyWith = list.fireWith - // deferred.resolveWith = list.fireWith - // deferred.rejectWith = list.fireWith - deferred[ tuple[ 0 ] + "With" ] = list.fireWith; - } ); - - // Make the deferred a promise - promise.promise( deferred ); - - // Call given func if any - if ( func ) { - func.call( deferred, deferred ); - } - - // All done! - return deferred; - }, - - // Deferred helper - when: function( singleValue ) { - var - - // count of uncompleted subordinates - remaining = arguments.length, - - // count of unprocessed arguments - i = remaining, - - // subordinate fulfillment data - resolveContexts = Array( i ), - resolveValues = slice.call( arguments ), - - // the master Deferred - master = jQuery.Deferred(), - - // subordinate callback factory - updateFunc = function( i ) { - return function( value ) { - resolveContexts[ i ] = this; - resolveValues[ i ] = arguments.length > 1 ? slice.call( arguments ) : value; - if ( !( --remaining ) ) { - master.resolveWith( resolveContexts, resolveValues ); - } - }; - }; - - // Single- and empty arguments are adopted like Promise.resolve - if ( remaining <= 1 ) { - adoptValue( singleValue, master.done( updateFunc( i ) ).resolve, master.reject, - !remaining ); - - // Use .then() to unwrap secondary thenables (cf. gh-3000) - if ( master.state() === "pending" || - jQuery.isFunction( resolveValues[ i ] && resolveValues[ i ].then ) ) { - - return master.then(); - } - } - - // Multiple arguments are aggregated like Promise.all array elements - while ( i-- ) { - adoptValue( resolveValues[ i ], updateFunc( i ), master.reject ); - } - - return master.promise(); - } -} ); - - -// These usually indicate a programmer mistake during development, -// warn about them ASAP rather than swallowing them by default. -var rerrorNames = /^(Eval|Internal|Range|Reference|Syntax|Type|URI)Error$/; - -jQuery.Deferred.exceptionHook = function( error, stack ) { - - // Support: IE 8 - 9 only - // Console exists when dev tools are open, which can happen at any time - if ( window.console && window.console.warn && error && rerrorNames.test( error.name ) ) { - window.console.warn( "jQuery.Deferred exception: " + error.message, error.stack, stack ); - } -}; - - - - -jQuery.readyException = function( error ) { - window.setTimeout( function() { - throw error; - } ); -}; - - - - -// The deferred used on DOM ready -var readyList = jQuery.Deferred(); - -jQuery.fn.ready = function( fn ) { - - readyList - .then( fn ) - - // Wrap jQuery.readyException in a function so that the lookup - // happens at the time of error handling instead of callback - // registration. - .catch( function( error ) { - jQuery.readyException( error ); - } ); - - return this; -}; - -jQuery.extend( { - - // Is the DOM ready to be used? Set to true once it occurs. - isReady: false, - - // A counter to track how many items to wait for before - // the ready event fires. See #6781 - readyWait: 1, - - // Handle when the DOM is ready - ready: function( wait ) { - - // Abort if there are pending holds or we're already ready - if ( wait === true ? --jQuery.readyWait : jQuery.isReady ) { - return; - } - - // Remember that the DOM is ready - jQuery.isReady = true; - - // If a normal DOM Ready event fired, decrement, and wait if need be - if ( wait !== true && --jQuery.readyWait > 0 ) { - return; - } - - // If there are functions bound, to execute - readyList.resolveWith( document, [ jQuery ] ); - } -} ); - -jQuery.ready.then = readyList.then; - -// The ready event handler and self cleanup method -function completed() { - document.removeEventListener( "DOMContentLoaded", completed ); - window.removeEventListener( "load", completed ); - jQuery.ready(); -} - -// Catch cases where $(document).ready() is called -// after the browser event has already occurred. -// Support: IE <=9 - 10 only -// Older IE sometimes signals "interactive" too soon -if ( document.readyState === "complete" || - ( document.readyState !== "loading" && !document.documentElement.doScroll ) ) { - - // Handle it asynchronously to allow scripts the opportunity to delay ready - window.setTimeout( jQuery.ready ); - -} else { - - // Use the handy event callback - document.addEventListener( "DOMContentLoaded", completed ); - - // A fallback to window.onload, that will always work - window.addEventListener( "load", completed ); -} - - - - -// Multifunctional method to get and set values of a collection -// The value/s can optionally be executed if it's a function -var access = function( elems, fn, key, value, chainable, emptyGet, raw ) { - var i = 0, - len = elems.length, - bulk = key == null; - - // Sets many values - if ( jQuery.type( key ) === "object" ) { - chainable = true; - for ( i in key ) { - access( elems, fn, i, key[ i ], true, emptyGet, raw ); - } - - // Sets one value - } else if ( value !== undefined ) { - chainable = true; - - if ( !jQuery.isFunction( value ) ) { - raw = true; - } - - if ( bulk ) { - - // Bulk operations run against the entire set - if ( raw ) { - fn.call( elems, value ); - fn = null; - - // ...except when executing function values - } else { - bulk = fn; - fn = function( elem, key, value ) { - return bulk.call( jQuery( elem ), value ); - }; - } - } - - if ( fn ) { - for ( ; i < len; i++ ) { - fn( - elems[ i ], key, raw ? - value : - value.call( elems[ i ], i, fn( elems[ i ], key ) ) - ); - } - } - } - - if ( chainable ) { - return elems; - } - - // Gets - if ( bulk ) { - return fn.call( elems ); - } - - return len ? fn( elems[ 0 ], key ) : emptyGet; -}; -var acceptData = function( owner ) { - - // Accepts only: - // - Node - // - Node.ELEMENT_NODE - // - Node.DOCUMENT_NODE - // - Object - // - Any - return owner.nodeType === 1 || owner.nodeType === 9 || !( +owner.nodeType ); -}; - - - - -function Data() { - this.expando = jQuery.expando + Data.uid++; -} - -Data.uid = 1; - -Data.prototype = { - - cache: function( owner ) { - - // Check if the owner object already has a cache - var value = owner[ this.expando ]; - - // If not, create one - if ( !value ) { - value = {}; - - // We can accept data for non-element nodes in modern browsers, - // but we should not, see #8335. - // Always return an empty object. - if ( acceptData( owner ) ) { - - // If it is a node unlikely to be stringify-ed or looped over - // use plain assignment - if ( owner.nodeType ) { - owner[ this.expando ] = value; - - // Otherwise secure it in a non-enumerable property - // configurable must be true to allow the property to be - // deleted when data is removed - } else { - Object.defineProperty( owner, this.expando, { - value: value, - configurable: true - } ); - } - } - } - - return value; - }, - set: function( owner, data, value ) { - var prop, - cache = this.cache( owner ); - - // Handle: [ owner, key, value ] args - // Always use camelCase key (gh-2257) - if ( typeof data === "string" ) { - cache[ jQuery.camelCase( data ) ] = value; - - // Handle: [ owner, { properties } ] args - } else { - - // Copy the properties one-by-one to the cache object - for ( prop in data ) { - cache[ jQuery.camelCase( prop ) ] = data[ prop ]; - } - } - return cache; - }, - get: function( owner, key ) { - return key === undefined ? - this.cache( owner ) : - - // Always use camelCase key (gh-2257) - owner[ this.expando ] && owner[ this.expando ][ jQuery.camelCase( key ) ]; - }, - access: function( owner, key, value ) { - - // In cases where either: - // - // 1. No key was specified - // 2. A string key was specified, but no value provided - // - // Take the "read" path and allow the get method to determine - // which value to return, respectively either: - // - // 1. The entire cache object - // 2. The data stored at the key - // - if ( key === undefined || - ( ( key && typeof key === "string" ) && value === undefined ) ) { - - return this.get( owner, key ); - } - - // When the key is not a string, or both a key and value - // are specified, set or extend (existing objects) with either: - // - // 1. An object of properties - // 2. A key and value - // - this.set( owner, key, value ); - - // Since the "set" path can have two possible entry points - // return the expected data based on which path was taken[*] - return value !== undefined ? value : key; - }, - remove: function( owner, key ) { - var i, - cache = owner[ this.expando ]; - - if ( cache === undefined ) { - return; - } - - if ( key !== undefined ) { - - // Support array or space separated string of keys - if ( Array.isArray( key ) ) { - - // If key is an array of keys... - // We always set camelCase keys, so remove that. - key = key.map( jQuery.camelCase ); - } else { - key = jQuery.camelCase( key ); - - // If a key with the spaces exists, use it. - // Otherwise, create an array by matching non-whitespace - key = key in cache ? - [ key ] : - ( key.match( rnothtmlwhite ) || [] ); - } - - i = key.length; - - while ( i-- ) { - delete cache[ key[ i ] ]; - } - } - - // Remove the expando if there's no more data - if ( key === undefined || jQuery.isEmptyObject( cache ) ) { - - // Support: Chrome <=35 - 45 - // Webkit & Blink performance suffers when deleting properties - // from DOM nodes, so set to undefined instead - // https://bugs.chromium.org/p/chromium/issues/detail?id=378607 (bug restricted) - if ( owner.nodeType ) { - owner[ this.expando ] = undefined; - } else { - delete owner[ this.expando ]; - } - } - }, - hasData: function( owner ) { - var cache = owner[ this.expando ]; - return cache !== undefined && !jQuery.isEmptyObject( cache ); - } -}; -var dataPriv = new Data(); - -var dataUser = new Data(); - - - -// Implementation Summary -// -// 1. Enforce API surface and semantic compatibility with 1.9.x branch -// 2. Improve the module's maintainability by reducing the storage -// paths to a single mechanism. -// 3. Use the same single mechanism to support "private" and "user" data. -// 4. _Never_ expose "private" data to user code (TODO: Drop _data, _removeData) -// 5. Avoid exposing implementation details on user objects (eg. expando properties) -// 6. Provide a clear path for implementation upgrade to WeakMap in 2014 - -var rbrace = /^(?:\{[\w\W]*\}|\[[\w\W]*\])$/, - rmultiDash = /[A-Z]/g; - -function getData( data ) { - if ( data === "true" ) { - return true; - } - - if ( data === "false" ) { - return false; - } - - if ( data === "null" ) { - return null; - } - - // Only convert to a number if it doesn't change the string - if ( data === +data + "" ) { - return +data; - } - - if ( rbrace.test( data ) ) { - return JSON.parse( data ); - } - - return data; -} - -function dataAttr( elem, key, data ) { - var name; - - // If nothing was found internally, try to fetch any - // data from the HTML5 data-* attribute - if ( data === undefined && elem.nodeType === 1 ) { - name = "data-" + key.replace( rmultiDash, "-$&" ).toLowerCase(); - data = elem.getAttribute( name ); - - if ( typeof data === "string" ) { - try { - data = getData( data ); - } catch ( e ) {} - - // Make sure we set the data so it isn't changed later - dataUser.set( elem, key, data ); - } else { - data = undefined; - } - } - return data; -} - -jQuery.extend( { - hasData: function( elem ) { - return dataUser.hasData( elem ) || dataPriv.hasData( elem ); - }, - - data: function( elem, name, data ) { - return dataUser.access( elem, name, data ); - }, - - removeData: function( elem, name ) { - dataUser.remove( elem, name ); - }, - - // TODO: Now that all calls to _data and _removeData have been replaced - // with direct calls to dataPriv methods, these can be deprecated. - _data: function( elem, name, data ) { - return dataPriv.access( elem, name, data ); - }, - - _removeData: function( elem, name ) { - dataPriv.remove( elem, name ); - } -} ); - -jQuery.fn.extend( { - data: function( key, value ) { - var i, name, data, - elem = this[ 0 ], - attrs = elem && elem.attributes; - - // Gets all values - if ( key === undefined ) { - if ( this.length ) { - data = dataUser.get( elem ); - - if ( elem.nodeType === 1 && !dataPriv.get( elem, "hasDataAttrs" ) ) { - i = attrs.length; - while ( i-- ) { - - // Support: IE 11 only - // The attrs elements can be null (#14894) - if ( attrs[ i ] ) { - name = attrs[ i ].name; - if ( name.indexOf( "data-" ) === 0 ) { - name = jQuery.camelCase( name.slice( 5 ) ); - dataAttr( elem, name, data[ name ] ); - } - } - } - dataPriv.set( elem, "hasDataAttrs", true ); - } - } - - return data; - } - - // Sets multiple values - if ( typeof key === "object" ) { - return this.each( function() { - dataUser.set( this, key ); - } ); - } - - return access( this, function( value ) { - var data; - - // The calling jQuery object (element matches) is not empty - // (and therefore has an element appears at this[ 0 ]) and the - // `value` parameter was not undefined. An empty jQuery object - // will result in `undefined` for elem = this[ 0 ] which will - // throw an exception if an attempt to read a data cache is made. - if ( elem && value === undefined ) { - - // Attempt to get data from the cache - // The key will always be camelCased in Data - data = dataUser.get( elem, key ); - if ( data !== undefined ) { - return data; - } - - // Attempt to "discover" the data in - // HTML5 custom data-* attrs - data = dataAttr( elem, key ); - if ( data !== undefined ) { - return data; - } - - // We tried really hard, but the data doesn't exist. - return; - } - - // Set the data... - this.each( function() { - - // We always store the camelCased key - dataUser.set( this, key, value ); - } ); - }, null, value, arguments.length > 1, null, true ); - }, - - removeData: function( key ) { - return this.each( function() { - dataUser.remove( this, key ); - } ); - } -} ); - - -jQuery.extend( { - queue: function( elem, type, data ) { - var queue; - - if ( elem ) { - type = ( type || "fx" ) + "queue"; - queue = dataPriv.get( elem, type ); - - // Speed up dequeue by getting out quickly if this is just a lookup - if ( data ) { - if ( !queue || Array.isArray( data ) ) { - queue = dataPriv.access( elem, type, jQuery.makeArray( data ) ); - } else { - queue.push( data ); - } - } - return queue || []; - } - }, - - dequeue: function( elem, type ) { - type = type || "fx"; - - var queue = jQuery.queue( elem, type ), - startLength = queue.length, - fn = queue.shift(), - hooks = jQuery._queueHooks( elem, type ), - next = function() { - jQuery.dequeue( elem, type ); - }; - - // If the fx queue is dequeued, always remove the progress sentinel - if ( fn === "inprogress" ) { - fn = queue.shift(); - startLength--; - } - - if ( fn ) { - - // Add a progress sentinel to prevent the fx queue from being - // automatically dequeued - if ( type === "fx" ) { - queue.unshift( "inprogress" ); - } - - // Clear up the last queue stop function - delete hooks.stop; - fn.call( elem, next, hooks ); - } - - if ( !startLength && hooks ) { - hooks.empty.fire(); - } - }, - - // Not public - generate a queueHooks object, or return the current one - _queueHooks: function( elem, type ) { - var key = type + "queueHooks"; - return dataPriv.get( elem, key ) || dataPriv.access( elem, key, { - empty: jQuery.Callbacks( "once memory" ).add( function() { - dataPriv.remove( elem, [ type + "queue", key ] ); - } ) - } ); - } -} ); - -jQuery.fn.extend( { - queue: function( type, data ) { - var setter = 2; - - if ( typeof type !== "string" ) { - data = type; - type = "fx"; - setter--; - } - - if ( arguments.length < setter ) { - return jQuery.queue( this[ 0 ], type ); - } - - return data === undefined ? - this : - this.each( function() { - var queue = jQuery.queue( this, type, data ); - - // Ensure a hooks for this queue - jQuery._queueHooks( this, type ); - - if ( type === "fx" && queue[ 0 ] !== "inprogress" ) { - jQuery.dequeue( this, type ); - } - } ); - }, - dequeue: function( type ) { - return this.each( function() { - jQuery.dequeue( this, type ); - } ); - }, - clearQueue: function( type ) { - return this.queue( type || "fx", [] ); - }, - - // Get a promise resolved when queues of a certain type - // are emptied (fx is the type by default) - promise: function( type, obj ) { - var tmp, - count = 1, - defer = jQuery.Deferred(), - elements = this, - i = this.length, - resolve = function() { - if ( !( --count ) ) { - defer.resolveWith( elements, [ elements ] ); - } - }; - - if ( typeof type !== "string" ) { - obj = type; - type = undefined; - } - type = type || "fx"; - - while ( i-- ) { - tmp = dataPriv.get( elements[ i ], type + "queueHooks" ); - if ( tmp && tmp.empty ) { - count++; - tmp.empty.add( resolve ); - } - } - resolve(); - return defer.promise( obj ); - } -} ); -var pnum = ( /[+-]?(?:\d*\.|)\d+(?:[eE][+-]?\d+|)/ ).source; - -var rcssNum = new RegExp( "^(?:([+-])=|)(" + pnum + ")([a-z%]*)$", "i" ); - - -var cssExpand = [ "Top", "Right", "Bottom", "Left" ]; - -var isHiddenWithinTree = function( elem, el ) { - - // isHiddenWithinTree might be called from jQuery#filter function; - // in that case, element will be second argument - elem = el || elem; - - // Inline style trumps all - return elem.style.display === "none" || - elem.style.display === "" && - - // Otherwise, check computed style - // Support: Firefox <=43 - 45 - // Disconnected elements can have computed disp