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.TH DEBTREE 1 "2009-09-12" "Debian Project" ""

debtree \- show relationships between packages

.B debtree
[\fIoptions\fP] \fIpackage\fP

Generates dependency graphs (in `dot' syntax) for the specified package.
The output is written to STDOUT and can be used as input for the command
\fBdot\fP(1) from the package `graphviz'.
Dependency graphs will by default show (pre-)dependencies, recommended
packages, unversioned conflicts, and virtual packages provided by the requested
package. Optionally also suggested packages and versioned conflicts can be
Besides graphs showing regular dependencies, \fBdebtree\fP can also generate
graphs showing the reverse dependencies of and the build dependencies for a

.SS Dependency types
The type of dependency between packages is by line type and the color of the
arrow indicating the dependency:
    Build-Depends:           dark gold, bold
    Build-Depends-Indep:     light gold
    Pre-Depends:             purple, bold
    Depends:                 blue
    Recommends:              black
    Suggests:                black, dotted
    Conflicts:               red
    Provides:                green, inverted arrow
By default the version requirements for versioned dependencies and conflicts
will be shown alongside the arrow.

.SS Alternative dependencies
Alternative dependencies will be shown within a single node (a rectangular
shape with horizontal lines separating the packages).
An alternative dependency will be indicated by a single arrow, unless one or
more of the dependencies are versioned. In that case a separate arrow (ending
at the relevant package) showing the version requirement is drawn. Arrows for
dependencies on a package in a set of alternatives will originate at the
correct package in the set, though in some cases this may be on the separation
line between two alternatives.
If a package included in an alternative dependency also needs to be displayed
separately or is also part of some other alternative dependency set, its
dependencies will only be included once, with the package's first occurrence.
For the secondary occurrences the package name will be shown between square
brackets: `[...]'.
See also the \-\-show\-installed option below.

.SS Virtual packages
Virtual packages will be shown as an octagonal shape with a green inverted
arrow from the providing package(s).
If only a single package provides the virtual package, this package (and
its dependencies) will be displayed in the graph.
If there are multiple packages that provide the virtual package, they will
be shown within a single node with rounded corners but only if there are less
than three (or the number set by the \-\-max\-providers option).
If there are more than that number, this will be indicated by an ellipsis
(`...') in the node; no individual packages will be shown but the number of
providing packages is indicated alongside the arrow.
Dependencies of the providing packages will not be shown.
A regular dependency graph will by default also show any virtual packages
provided by the requested binary package.

.SS Unknown packages
Packages that are listed as dependency, but that are unknown in the package
database will be displayed with a reddish shade. In the case of alternative
dependencies, the package name will be shown between question marks: `?...?'.

.SS Package versions
If multiple versions of a package are available, the dependency information
for the highest available version will be used, with one exception. If the
\-\-show\-installed option is used, the installed version will be used for
packages that are installed on the system.

.SS Managing graph size and complexity
\fBdebtree\fP offers several mechanisms to help reduce the size of dependency
graphs of packages with large or complex dependency trees. The first mechanism
is to limit what types of dependencies are included, for example excluding
Recommended or Conflicting packages from the graph. The second mechanism is
the configuration of lists of \fIskip\fP and \fIend packages\fP; see the section
CONFIGURATION below for details. The last mechanism is to place a hard limit on
the depth of the dependency tree.
It is not possible to include the dependencies of suggested packages. Doing so
would in almost all cases result in an explosion of the size of graphs.
For some packages it is unfortunately almost impossible to generate a usable
dependency graph due to the number of dependencies they have. This is often the
case for meta packages, for example those for KDE or GNOME.

This program follows the usual GNU command line syntax, with long options
starting with two dashes (`-').
An overview of supported options is included below.

.IP "\fB\-\-show-installed\fP, \fB\-I\fP"
Show which packages are installed on the system.

The nodes for packages which are installed on the system will be colored
light green. For alternative dependencies, only installed packages will
be included (an ellipsis is used to indicate omitted alternatives); for
unsatisfied alternative dependencies, all alternatives will be included.

.IP "\fB\-\-show-rdeps\fP, \fB\-R\fP"
Also show reverse dependencies of the package and any virtual packages it

Reverse dependencies that are not installed will be colored light yellow;
installed ones light blue. Displaying reverse dependencies of type Suggests
is not supported.

Use of the option \-\-show\-installed in combination with this option is
recommended. See also the options \-\-rdeps\-depth and \-\-max\-rdeps.
This option is ignored if \-\-build\-dep is also specified.

.IP "\fB\-\-build\-dep\fP, \fB\-b\fP"
Show build dependencies instead of package dependencies.

Suggested packages will never be included in a build dependency graph.
If there are alternative packages to satisfy a dependency, normally only the
first alternative will be shown. However, when used in combination with the
\-\-show\-installed option, all already installed alternatives will be
included for satisfied dependencies (unless the \-\-no\-alternatives option
is also given).

.IP "\fB\-\-arch\fP=\fIarchitecture\fP"
Specify the architecture (or `all') for the build dependency graph. If the
option \-\-build\dep option is not present, this option will be ignored.
Default is the architecture of the system on which the command is being run.

If architecture `all' is specified, all build dependencies will be shown.
If any build dependencies have `architecture conditions', those will be
displayed in a graph.

If an architecture is specified (including the default), only build
dependencies that are relevant for that architecture will be shown; build
dependencies for other architectures will be ignored.

.IP "\fB\-\-with\-suggests\fP, \fB\-S\fP"
Include suggested packages; dependencies of suggested packages are never included.

.IP "\fB\-\-no\-recommends\fP"
Don't show recommended packages.

This option will be ignored if used in combination with the \-\-with\-suggests

.IP "\fB\-\-no\-alternatives\fP"
Only show the first package from a set of alternative dependencies. Effectively
this shows what package would be installed by default (in most cases).

.IP "\fB\-\-no\-provides\fP"
Don't show virtual packages provided by the requested package.

.IP "\fB\-\-max\-providers\fP=\fInumber\fP"
When there are multiple packages providing a virtual package, only show the
providing packages if there are less than this number. Default is 3.

.IP "\fB\-\-no\-versions\fP"
Don't show the versions for versioned dependencies.

.IP "\fB\-\-no\-conflicts\fP"
Don't show unversioned conflicts.

.IP "\fB\-\-versioned\-conflicts\fP, \fB\-VC\fP"
Include versioned conflicts; by default only unversioned conflicts are shown.

This option will be ignored if used in combination with the \-\-no\-conflicts

.IP "\fB\-\-max\-depth\fP=\fInumber\fP"
Limit the number of levels of dependencies that is traversed.

This option sets a limit to the number of levels \fBdebtree\fP will recurse
when determining dependencies. Packages at the specified level will be treated
as \fIend packages\fP (see section CONFIGURATION below).

The option can be used both to reduce the size of graphs.

.IP "\fB\-\-rdeps\-depth\fP=\fInumber\fP"
The maximum number of levels for reverse dependencies.

By default only one level is displayed. Use this option to display more levels.
Implies \-\-show\-rdeps.

.IP "\fB\-\-max\-rdeps\fP=\fInumber\fP"
Limit the display of indirect reverse dependencies.

When displaying multiple levels of reverse dependencies, a reverse dependency
that itself has a lot of reverse dependencies can really explode the graph.
By default up to 5 indirect reverse dependencies are shown individually.

.IP "\fB\-\-no\-skip\fP"
Also display dependencies that are suppressed by default (e.g. libc6).

When selected, \fIskip packages\fP will be treated as \fIend packages\fP instead.
This means that dependencies that by default are not included in graphs, will
now be shown, but their dependencies will not. See also the section CONFIGURATION

.IP "\fB\-\-show\-all\fP"
Display the full dependency tree.

When selected, all default limits in the form of \fIend\fP and \fI skip
packages\fP are disabled and the full dependency graph for the package will
be generated. See also the section CONFIGURATION below.

This option implies the \-\-no\-skip option, but can be used in combination with
the \-\-max\-depth option. Note that this option does not affect the types of
dependencies that are included.

.IP "\fB\-\-rotate\fP, \fB\-r\fP"
Draw the graph top\-town instead of left\-to\-right.

.IP "\fB\-\-condense\fP"
Activates an option of \fBdot\fP(1) that can help reduce the clutter in dense
graphs by concentrating lines  (relationships) between packages together for
parts of their paths.

.IP "\fB\-\-quiet\fP, \fB\-q\fP"
Suppress any informational/warning messages.

.IP "\fB\-\-verbose\fP, \fB\-v\fP"
Increase verbosity.

Displays additional informational and debug messages; can be repeated up to
three times.

.\" .TP
.\" .B \-h, \-\-help
.\" Show summary of options.
.\" .TP
.\" .B \-v, \-\-version
.\" Show version of program.

\fBdebtree\fP can be configured to limit the size and complexity of dependency
graphs. This is done using two lists:
.IP "/etc/debtree/skiplist, ~/.debtree/skiplist"
List of \fIskip packages\fP. Packages included in this list are completely
excluded from graphs. The list should only contain dependencies that are so
common that including them in graphs only clutters the graph and does not
really add any information. Examples are libc6 and zlib1g. If an alternative
dependency contains only skip packages it will be omitted; if it contains a mix
of skip and non-skip packages, the presence of the skip packages will be shown
using an ellipsis ('...').
.IP "/etc/debtree/endlist, ~/.debtree/endlist"
List of \fIend packages\fP. Packages included in this list are shown in the
graph, but their dependencies will not be shown. A diamond shape is used to
indicate an end package; in the case of alternative dependencies, the package
name will be shown between braces: `{...}'.

Preferably only packages that offer a functionality that is somewhat distinct
from its reverse dependencies should be included in this list. In some cases
it may be necessary to also include packages because their dependency tree is
just too big or complex.
If a list is present under the HOME directory of the user, that file will be used
instead of the default file in /etc/debtree/.
See also the options \-\-no\-skip, \-\-show\-all and \-\-max\-depth.

Below are some basic usage examples for \fBdebtree\fP.
For more extensive examples of graphs and additional information, please
see the \fBdebtree\fP website: \fI\fP.
.IP "$ debtree dpkg >"
Generate the dependency graph for package \fIdpkg\fP and save the output to a
file `'.
.IP "$ dot -Tsvg -o dpkg.svg"
Use \fBdot\fP(1) to generate an SVG image from the `.dot' file.
.IP "$ debtree dpkg | dot -Tpng >dpkg.png"
Generate the dependency graph for package \fIdpkg\fP as PNG image and save
the resulting output to a file.
.IP "$ debtree -b dpkg | dot -Tps | kghostview - &"
Generate the build dependency graph for package \fIdpkg\fP in postscript format
and view the result using KDE's \fBkghostview\fP(1).

.BR dot (1).
.BR prune (1).
.BR gvpr (1).

Frans Pop <>.