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  <center><b><font size="7">Stella</font></b></center>
  <br><br>
  <center><h2><b>A multi-platform Atari 2600 VCS emulator</b></h2></center>

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  <center><h4><b>Release 6.0</b></h4></center>
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  <br><br>

  <center><h2><b>User's Guide</b></h2></center>
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  <br>
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  <h2>Contents</h2>
  <ul>
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    <li><a href="#History">A Brief History of the Atari 2600</a></li>
    <li><a href="#Introduction">Introduction</a><br>
      <ul><li><a href="#Features">Features</a></li></ul>
    </li>
    <li><a href="#QuickStart">Getting Started</a><br>
      <ul>
        <li><a href="#Requirements">Requirements</a></li>
        <li><a href="#Installation">Installation</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#Games">Locating Game Images (aka ROMs)</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#Playing">Playing a Game</a></li>
        <li><a href="#Keyboard">Keyboard Layout</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#Hotkeys">Hotkeys</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#ControlMap">Controller Map</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#TimeMachine">Stella's 'Time Machine'</a></li>
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      </ul>
    </li>
    <li><a href="#Advanced">Advanced Configuration</a><br>
      <ul>
        <li><a href="#CommandLine">Using the Command Line</a></li>
        <li><a href="#Options">Changing Options</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#Remapping">Event Remapping/Input Devices</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#ROMInfo">ROM Launcher</a></li>
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        <ul>
          <li><a href="#ROMInfoViewer">ROM Launcher Viewer</a></li>
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          <li><a href="#ROMLauncherContextMenu">ROM Launcher Context Menu</a></li>
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        </ul>
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        <li><a href="#ROMAudit">ROM Audit Mode</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#Adaptor">Stelladaptor/2600-daptor Support</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#AtariVox">AtariVox/SaveKey Support</a></li>
        <li><a href="#Debugger">Developer Options/Integrated Debugger</a></li>
        <li><a href="#Settings">Settings File</a></li>
        <li><a href="#Cheats">Cheatcode Manager</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#Logs">Viewing the System Log</a></li>
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        <li><a href="#Properties">Game Properties</a></li>
        <li><a href="#Palette">Palette Support</a></li>
      </ul>
    </li>
    <li><a href="#Acknowledgments">Acknowledgments</a></li>
    <li><a href="#License">License and Disclaimer</a></li>
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  </ul>
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  <br><br><br>

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  <center><b>February 1999 - December 2018</b></center>
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    <center><b>The Stella Team</b></center>
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  <center><b><a href="https://stella-emu.github.io">Stella Homepage</a></b></center>
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  <br>
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<!-- /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////  -->
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  <br><br>
  <p><h1>
  <a name="History">A Brief History of the Atari 2600</a></h1>
  <hr>

  <p><a><img src="graphics/console.png" ALIGN=RIGHT></a>
  In the early 1970's, video arcade games gained commercial success for the
  first time. The American public was introduced to Pong, Tank, and other
  interactive video games which populated amusement parks, bars, and arcades.
  The games were successful enough to create interest for home versions, so in
  1975 Atari released Home Pong and it was a smash hit. Other companies such as
  Magnavox and Coleco followed suit and released their own dedicated console
  games. Then in 1976, Fairchild Camera and Instrument introduced the Channel F
  system, the first cartridge based home video game system. The industry
  recognized that cartridge systems were the future of video gaming, and began
  development in that direction. In January 1977, RCA released the Studio II,
  another cartridge based system, although it only projected in black and white
  and seemed to be focused on educational titles. Then, in October 1977, Atari
  released the Atari VCS (Video Computer System) with an initial offering of nine
  games. This system, later renamed the Atari 2600, took the industry by storm
  and dominated the marketplace for years to come.
  </p>

  <p><a><img src="graphics/chucky_cheese.png" ALIGN=LEFT></a>
  Because of oversupply, the Christmas season of 1977 was very rough on the
  video game industry, and the Atari 2600 was the only system that managed to
  emerge unscathed. Atari enjoyed strong sales in 1978 and a fantastic holiday
  season, as Atari released more games such as Outlaw, Spacewar, and Breakout.
  Internally however, Atari was at odds. Nolan Bushnell, the inventor of pong and
  founder of Atari, wound up leaving the company and purchased Pizza Time Theater,
  which later became the successful Chuck E. Cheese! In 1979 Atari continued
  their trend and released 12 more games which met with continued success.
  However, Atari was now facing some stiffer competition from the Mattel
  Intellivision and the Magnavox Odyssey2.
  </p>

  <p><a><img src="graphics/space_invaders.png" ALIGN=RIGHT></a>
  Atari needed a mega-hit in 1980 in order to squash the competition, and they
  found it in the home version of a game from Japan called Space Invaders. It was
  so popular that people were buying the Atari 2600 just so they could play Space
  Invaders at home. Following that, Atari released Adventure, which was the first
  video game to contain an Easter Egg - placing an object in a certain area
  revealed the programmer's name, Warren Robinett. 1980 was important for another
  reason - the creation of the first ever third party software producer, Activision.
  The company was formed by four Atari employees who were unsatisfied with the
  working conditions at the company. They released four games initially: Dragster,
  Fishing Derby, Checkers and Boxing. The games were very well received by the
  public, and revealed that the Atari 2600 was capable of better games than
  Atari themselves had been producing. Atari tried to prevent Activision from
  selling games, but they failed and Activision grossed $70 million that year.
  </p>

  <p>
  By 1981, the video game industry was basically a horse race between the 2600
  and the Intellivision. While the Intellivision was technologically superior in
  some respects, the 2600 continued to lead in sales. Atari released the home
  version of Asteroids, which was a huge success. Inspired by the success of
  Activision, another software development group called Imagic was formed. They
  would not release any games until 1982 however. Another company, Games by Apollo,
  was formed in Texas and released several games that year.
  </p>

  <p>
  Coleco entered the market in 1982 with the release of the graphically
  superior Colecovision. To combat this new system, Atari produced the 5200,
  a technologically comparable system. The 2600 dropped $100 in price in order
  to remain competitive. Then a company called Arcadia released a peripheral
  called the Supercharger which played games in an audio cassette medium. This
  allowed for multiple loads and expanded the 2600's capabilities.
  <p><a><img src="graphics/pacman.png" ALIGN=LEFT></a>
  Atari released Pac-Man and E.T. that year, two incredibly hyped games which
  were critical flops.
  Although Pac-Man sold many copies, it was considered to be a poor
  translation of the arcade hit. However, there were many fantastic games
  produced for the 2600 during this period, and it was still selling strong.
  </p>

  <p>
  Ever since the inception of Activision, Atari had been fighting to keep third
  parties from producing cartridges which they felt were stealing profits from
  them. Finally the issue was settled when Atari agreed to allow third party
  manufacturing in exchange for a royalty. Suddenly software companies began
  popping up all over, and 1982 saw releases from companies like Venturevision,
  Spectravision, Telesys, CBS, 20th Century Fox, US Games, M Network, Tigervision,
  Data Age, Imagic and Coleco. There was even a company that released a line of
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  X-Rated games for the 2600 called Mystique. The year was financially successful
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  for Atari, however there seemed to be a glut of software. Although there were
  many quality titles still produced, there was an increasing number of rushed
  games as manufacturers attempted to cash in on the craze.
  </p>

  <p>
  More companies jumped on the band wagon in 1983. Zimag, Ultravision, Amiga,
  and others were also producing games and peripherals. It seemed as if there was
  just too much product to meet the demand, and as it turned out there was. By
  the end of the year, companies began folding. US Games, Data Age, Games by
  Apollo, Telesys and others all closed their doors from poor sales. A video
  game crash was occurring, and all companies were taking it on the chin.
  </p>

  <p>
  1984 was a much more subdued year for the Atari 2600, and the price of the
  system had now dropped to $40-$50. Many were saying that the video game
  industry was dead. However, Atari surprised everyone by announcing the release
  of the 7800, and also promising more 2600 games with improved graphics and
  sound. Unfortunately, neither of these things happened in 1984 because Atari
  sold their home video game division to Jack Tramiel who believed that home
  computers would replace video game systems. No further mention of the 2600 or
  7800 was made that year, and it appeared that they might be dead.
  </p>

  <p>
  1985 was another very quiet year for Atari and video games in general, and only
  a few games were released for the 2600. Activision produced Cosmic Commuter and
  Ghostbusters, but with little fanfare or marketing, these games did not sell
  well. However, because of the huge game library and cheap price, Atari still
  sold over a million 2600 consoles in 1985.
  </p>

  <p>
  There were very few plans for home video game systems by any company in 1986,
  since the market appeared to be dead. Then, to most people's surprise, Nintendo
  brought the NES to America and it was a smash hit, proving that video games
  still had a place in the US. Atari decided that maybe it would be a good idea
  to release the 7800 units it had in storage, and produce some more 2600 games.
  The 7800 was released with only 3 games initially available, although it was
  compatible with the 2600 library. They also redesigned the 2600 as the 2600 Jr.,
  a machine with the same abilities, but a new look and marketing campaign. It
  was sold for less than $50.
  </p>

  <p><a><img src="graphics/jr_pacman.png" ALIGN=RIGHT></a>
  Video games were once again selling phenomenally in 1987. Atari released
  several new titles, including Jr. Pac-Man, and also licensed a number of games
  from other companies such as Donkey Kong and Q*Bert. These new titles sold for
  $10-$15. Interestingly, a number of titles began appearing again from third
  part companies such as Epyx, Froggo, and Exus. It seemed that the 2600 was not
  dead yet!
  <p><a><img src="graphics/secret_quest.png" ALIGN=LEFT></a>
  In 1988, Atari rehired Nolan Bushnell and announced a number of new
  titles, including Secret Quest, a game written by Mr. Bushnell himself. Atari
  continued to manufacture these games even until 1989. However, it was apparent
  that the 2600, after its introduction over a decade ago, was finally at the end
  of its run. Although it was still produced and marketed outside of the US, the
  Atari 2600 finished its run in America. No other console has had such a long
  history or sold as many systems in the U.S.
  </p>

  <p>
  Today, the 2600 still has a large number of fans who remember the countless
  games played over the years, and the years to come. There are even games being
  produced by hobbyists, some of them quite professionally, being released on
  newly burnt cartridges with labels and manuals. And the recent trend in
  retrogaming has brought many more video game fans to rediscover the 2600, and
  it continues to live on 22 years after its release!
  </p>

  <p><i>Alexander Bilstein<br>February 1999</i></p>
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  <br><br>
  <p><h1>
  <a name="Introduction">Introduction</a></h1>
  <hr>

  <p>
  Stella is a freely distributed multi-platform Atari 2600 VCS emulator; originally
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  developed for Linux by Bradford W. Mott, it is now maintained by Stephen Anthony.
  Stella allows you to enjoy all of
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  your favorite 2600 games once again by emulating the 2600's hardware with
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  software. Stella is written in C++, which allows it to be ported to other
  operating systems and architectures. Since its original release Stella has
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  been ported to AcornOS, AmigaOS, DOS, FreeBSD, Linux, MacOS, OpenStep, OS/2,
    Unix, and Windows, as well as consoles such as Sega Dreamcast, GP2X, Nintendo
  DS and Playstation Portable (among others).
  </p>

  <p>
  </h1>
  <h2><b><a name="Features">Features</a></b></h2>

  <ul>
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    <li>High speed emulation using optimized C++14 code</li>
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    <li>Supports high quality TIA emulation using the cycle-exact TIA core from
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      <a href="https://github.com/6502ts/6502.ts">6502.ts</a> by
      Christian Speckner</li>
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    <li>Supports high quality sound emulation using code derived from Chris Brenner's
      Atari 2600 FPGA project, including cycle-exact audio, analog interference
      from mixing of audio channels, as well as stereo sound support; dynamic
      sound resampling is also included</li>
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    <li>Emulates the Atari 2600 Joystick Controllers using your computer's keyboard,
      joysticks or mouse</li>
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    <li>Emulates the Atari 2600 Keyboard Controllers using your computer's keyboard</li>
    <li>Emulates the Atari 2600 Paddle Controllers using your computer's mouse, keyboard
      or joysticks</li>
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    <li>Emulates the Atari 2600 Driving Controllers using your computer's keyboard,
      joysticks or mouse</li>
    <li>Emulates the CBS BoosterGrip Controller using your computer's keyboard,
      joysticks or mouse</li>
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    <li>Emulates the Sega Genesis Controller using your computer's keyboard,
      joysticks or mouse</li>
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    <li>Emulates CX22/CX80 style trackballs and Amiga/Atari Mouse using your
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      computer's mouse</li>
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    <li>Emulates <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CompuMate">Spectravideo CompuMate</a> system using your computer's keyboard,
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      including mapping of CompuMate 'Backspace', 'Space' and 'Enter' functionality to
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      to the actual keys on your keyboard</li>
    <li>Emulates the Mindlink Controller using your computer's mouse</li>
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    <li>Support for real Atari 2600 controllers using the
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      <a href="http://www.grandideastudio.com/portfolio/stelladaptor-2600">Stelladaptor</a> and
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      <a href="http://2600-daptor.com">2600-daptor/2600-daptor II</a></li>
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    <li>Support for the speech portion of a real
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      <a href="http://atariage.com/store/index.php?l=product_list&c=98">
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      AtariVox</a> device connected to your PC using a USB adaptor</li>
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    <li>Supports EEPROM emulation for <a href="http://atariage.com/store/index.php?l=product_list&c=98">
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      AtariVox</a> and <a href="http://www.vectrex.biz/MemCard.htm">SaveKey</a> controllers,
      as well as FLASH support in various cartridge schemes</li>
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    <li>Supports all known bankswitching schemes (let us know if there's one we missed)</li>
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    <li>Supports DPC+/CDF bankswitching schemes from the <a href="http://harmony.atariage.com">Harmony Cart</a>,
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      including <a href="http://thumbulator.blogspot.ca">partial emulation of the ARM processor</a></li>
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    <li>Supports cartridge autodetection for almost all bankswitching schemes</li>
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    <li>Supports using ROM filename extensions to force specific bankswitching schemes</li>
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    <li>Supports Supercharger single-load and multi-load games</li>
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    <li>Supports ROMs stored in ZIP and GZIP format, as well as the usual raw A26/BIN/ROM formats</li>
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    <li>Supports property file for setting the properties associated with games</li>
    <li>Supports the NTSC, PAL and SECAM television standards in 50Hz and 60Hz mode</li>
    <li>Supports autodetection of display format for 50Hz vs. 60Hz modes</li>
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    <li>Supports most "undocumented features" of the TIA graphics chip used by
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      some games</li>
    <li>TIA emulation supports full collision checking, with ability to disable
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      TIA sprites and collisions for each object separately</li>
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    <li>Full system state save/load functionality</li>
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    <li>Automatic save state creation ('Time Machine') which allows moving back and forth in the recorded timeline</li>
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    <li>Cross-platform UI including a built-in ROM launcher frontend</li>
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    <li>Built-in extensive debugger, including static analysis with the Distella disassembler
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      and dynamic analysis at runtime by tracking code/graphics/data sections, and
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      generation of DASM-compatible disassembly files</li>
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    <li>Emulation of CRT TV systems using <a href="http://slack.net/~ant/libs/ntsc.html">
      Blargg filtering</a>, including presets for several common TV outputs
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      (composite, S-video, RGB, etc.), and ability to fully customize
      many attributes (contrast, brightness, saturation, gamma, etc.).</li>
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    <li>Built-in ROM database with information partially compiled by
      <a href="http://www.atarimania.com/rom_collection_archive_atari_2600_roms.html">
      RomHunter</a></li>
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  </ul>
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  <br><br>
  <p><h1>
  <a name="QuickStart">Getting Started</a></h1>
  <hr>

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  <h2><b><a name="Requirements">Requirements</a></b></h2>
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  <blockquote>
  <p>The following sections outline the basic system requirements for running
  Stella under various operating systems.</p>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>General</u> (required for all versions of Stella)</b></h3>
  <ul>
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    <li>SDL version 2.0.3 or greater, latest version highly recommended</li>
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    <li>15/16 bit color minimum; 24/32 bit color graphics card highly recommended</li>
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    <li>Enough RAM for the OS + 256MB RAM for the emulation; 512MB+ highly recommended</li>
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    <li>Joysticks or gamepads are highly recommended</li>
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    <li>Mouse or <a href="http://www.grandideastudio.com/portfolio/stelladaptor-2600">Stelladaptor</a>/<a href="http://2600-daptor.com">2600-daptor</a>
    with real paddles required for paddle emulation</li>
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    <li>Some ROM images (see <a href="http://www.atariage.com">AtariAge</a> for more information)</li>
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  </ul>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Linux/UNIX</u></b></h3>
  <p>The Linux version of Stella is designed to work on a Linux Workstation with
  the following:</p>
  <ul>
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    <li>Linux Kernel 3.x</li>
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    <li>i386 or x86_64 class machine, with 32 or 64-bit distribution</li>
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    <li>OpenGL capable video card</li>
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    <li>Other architectures (MIPS, PPC, PPC64, etc.) have been confirmed to work,
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      but aren't as well tested as i386/x86_64</li>
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    <li>GNU g++ v/5 or Clang v/3.5 (with C++14 support) and the make utility are required for compiling the Stella source code</li>
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  </ul>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Macintosh</u></b></h3>

  <p>The Mac version of Stella is designed to work on an Apple Macintosh with
  the following:</p>
  <ul>
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    <li>macOS 10.7 or above</li>
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    <li>64-bit Intel processor</li>
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    <li>OpenGL capable video card</li>
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    <li>Xcode 8.0 is required to compile the Stella source code</li>
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  </ul>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Windows</u></b></h3>

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  <p>The Windows version of Stella is designed to work on Windows XP_SP3(*)/Vista/7/8/10
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  with the following:</p>

  <ul>
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    <li>Direct3D or OpenGL capable video card</li>
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    <li>64-bit port has been tested on Windows Vista and above only</li>
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    <li>Visual C++ 2017 Community is required to compile the Stella source code</li>
    <li>(*) Note: Support for Windows XP is problematic on some systems, and will
        probably be discontinued in a future release</li>
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  </ul>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Other</u></b></h3>

  <p>Stella is extremely portable, and in its lifetime has been ported to almost every
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  platform where the SDL library exists. It is 32/64-bit and endian clean in Linux/Unix, macOS
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  and Windows. The Stella Team is interested in hearing about any problems you may
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  encounter with diverse operating systems and CPU types.</p>
  </blockquote>


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  <h2><b><a name="Installation">Installation</a></b></h2>
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  <blockquote>
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  <p>Stella is distributed in both source and binary form. In general, you should always
  download and install the appropriate binary version. Compiling from source is only
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  recommended for developers, or if the binary version doesn't work for some reason.
  Once you have a Stella distribution you should follow the instructions for your
  operating system given below.</p>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Linux/UNIX</u></b></h3>
  <ul>
    <li><b>Binary DEB</b> (stella-<i>release</i>-1_arch.deb)
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      <ul>
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        <li>Install the binary DEB with the following command:
          <pre>   dpkg -i stella-<i>release</i>-1_arch.deb</pre></li>
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      </ul>
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    </li>
    <li><b>Binary RPM</b> (stella-<i>release</i>-1.arch.rpm)
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      <ul>
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        <li>Install the binary RPM with the following command:
          <pre>   rpm -Uvh stella-<i>release</i>-1.arch.rpm</pre></li>
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      </ul>
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    </li>
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    <li><b>Building and installing from source code</b>
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    <ul>
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      <li>See the developers build instructions at the
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      <a href="https://stella-emu.github.io/development.html">Stella Development Page</a>.
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    </ul>
    </li>
  </ul>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Macintosh</u></b></h3>
  <ul>
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    <li><b>Binary DMG file</b> (Stella-<i>release</i>-macos.dmg)
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      <ul>
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        <li>Double-click the disk image, open the 'Stella' folder, then copy the
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        <b>Stella.app</b> package to your 'Applications' folder.</li>
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      </ul>
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    </li>
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    <br/>
    <li><b>Building and installing from source code</b>
    <ul>
      <li>See the developers build instructions at the
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      <a href="https://stella-emu.github.io/development.html">Stella Development Page</a>.
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    </ul>
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    </li>
  </ul>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Windows</u></b></h3>
  <ul>
    <li><b>Binary EXE installer</b> (stella-<i>release</i>-<i>arch</i>.exe)
      <ol>
        <li>Double-click on the installer and follow the onscreen instructions</li>
      </ol>
    </li>
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    <br/>
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    <li><b>Binary ZIP file</b> (stella-<i>release</i>-windows.zip)
      <ol>
        <li>Unzip the binary ZIP file using <b>Winzip</b> or <b>Total Commander</b></li>
        <li>Copy the contents of either 32-bit or 64-bit directory somewhere on your system</li>
      </ol>
    </li>
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    <br/>
    <li><b>Building and installing from source code</b>
    <ul>
      <li>See the developers build instructions at the
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      <a href="https://stella-emu.github.io/development.html">Stella Development Page</a>.
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    </ul>
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    </li>
  </ul>
  </blockquote>

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  <h2><b><a name="Games">Locating Game Images (aka ROMs)</a></b></h2>
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  <blockquote>
  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Cartridges</u></b></h3>

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  <p>Most games for the Atari 2600 came on cartridges. A cartridge usually
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  consists of a single Read Only Memory (ROM) chip which contains the data and
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  code for the game. Plugging a cartridge into the Atari 2600 allows the 2600's
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  microprocessor to access the program stored on the cartridge.</p>

  <p>In a similar way you must "plug" a copy of a cartridge into Stella when you
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  want to play it. Having a ROM image/BIN file of the cartridge allows you to
  do this. A ROM image is a file, which contains the actual data and code read
  from the cartridge. There are several ways to obtain a ROM image of a
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  cartridge:</p>

  <p><ul>
    <li>Search around the internet and find ROM images to download (websites such
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      as <a href="http://atariage.com">AtariAge</a> and
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      <a href="http://www.atarimania.com/rom_collection_archive_atari_2600_roms.html">
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      AtariMania/RomHunter</a> may be useful). Many homebrewers make their ROMs available too.</li>
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    <li>You can purchase the Atari 2600 Action Packs by Activision and use
    their ROM images</li>

    <li>If you're handy with a soldering iron then you can design and build a
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    device that plugs into a PC and read the data from the cartridge</li>
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  </ul>

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  <p><b>WARNING:</b> It may be illegal to use ROM images of games that you do not
  actually own since these games may still be copyrighted.</p>
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  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Supercharger Cassettes</u></b></h3>

  <p>Supercharger games were not stored on cartridges instead they were stored
  on cassette tapes. The Supercharger, which plugged into the Atari 2600's
  cartridge slot, loaded games into its 6K of Random Access Memory (RAM) using a
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  standard audio cassette player. The Supercharger also supported multi-loading,
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  which allowed games to be broken into several segments and loaded at different
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  times. This was useful for large games which had distinct parts such as role
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  playing games.</p>

  <p>Most of the available Supercharger ROM images are stored in 8448 bytes files.
  However, ROM images of multi-load games are sometimes stored in a set of 8448
  byte files. The names of these files have a two character sequence number in
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  them which indicates what load they are. The sequence starts with zero, skips
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  a few numbers and then increments by one.</p>

  <p>Stella supports multi-load games, however, the set of ROM images must be
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  combined into a single ROM image file. For example to create a multi-load ROM
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  image file for Survival Island you would do the following under Unix:

  <pre>   % cat survivl0.bin survivl6.bin survivl7.bin > survivl.bin</pre>
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  or to create it under DOS you would:

  <pre>   % copy /b survivl0.bin+survivl6.bin+survivl7.bin survivl.bin</pre>

  <p>Once you have the multi-load ROM image file, survivl.bin in this case, you
  can play the game using it.</p>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Supported File formats</u></b></h3>

  <p>Stella supports ROMs ending with extensions .a26, .bin, .rom, .gz, and .zip.
  For the last two compressed formats (GZIP and ZIP, respectively), Stella will
  automatically decompress the archive, and use the first ROM image it finds in
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  it (ie, the first one ending in a valid extension).  If a ZIP archive contains
  many such files, Stella will display a <i>virtual filesystem</i> of the contents
  of the archive.</p>

  <p>Other extensions are also possible, namely to force a specific bankswitch scheme.
  Normally, the bankswitching scheme for a ROM is determined automatically,
  or manually by setting a <a href="#Properties">ROM property</a>, and you never
  have to do anything yourself.  However, it is also possible to force the
  bankswitch type to use by adding a special filename extension.  These extensions
  are listed in the <a href="#Properties">ROM properties</a> section under
  <a href="#PropertiesCartType">Cartridge.Type -&gt; File Extension</a>.</p>

  <p><b>Note:</b> These extensions are the same as those used by the Harmony Cart
  and Unocart and are not case-sensitive, so you can name your files and have them
  work across all applications.  <u>Again, to be clear, this is only necessary when
  you want to override the default bankswitching scheme for a ROM.</u>  <b>This will
  not normally be necessary.</b></p>

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  <h2><b><a name="Playing">Playing a Game</a></b></h2>
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  <blockquote>
  <p>Once Stella is installed and you have some ROM images you're almost ready to
  start playing.</p>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Integrated GUI</u></b></h3>

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  <p>Stella contains an integrated GUI for all ports. Commandline support is also
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  available for those who want to use it.</p>

  <p>If you start Stella and do not specify a ROM image, it will start in
  'ROM Launcher' mode:<br><br>
  <img src="graphics/launcher.png"></p>

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  <p>If this is your first time starting Stella, you may have to navigate to your ROMs.
  The path of the first ROM you play automatically defines the default ROM path. You
  can change it later in the <b><a href="#ConfigPaths">Configure Paths</a></b> dialog.
  </p>
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  <p>At this point, you may want to set the locations for snapshots and other
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  external paths. This is described in more detail in
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  <b>Advanced Configuration - <a href="#Snapshots">Snapshot Settings</a></b> and
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  <b>Advanced Configuration - <a href="#ConfigPaths">Configure Paths</a></b>.
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  These settings are optional, and can be left at the defaults if you won't be using
  snapshots in the ROM launcher.</p>

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  <p>you can start emulation by selecting a ROM and pressing 'Enter' or clicking 'Select',
  or double-clicking a ROM. Note that some games require you to 'Reset' the console
  before you start playing. In this case, you need to hit the virtual reset switch,
  which by default is the F2 key.  Also, some games may require that you press the
  joystick fire button to begin, which by default is the Left Control or Space key(s),
  or button 0 on your joystick.  If a game uses a more complex controller, see
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  <b>Getting Started - <a href="#Keyboard">Keyboard Layout</a></b>
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  for more information. To exit a game and re-enter the ROM launcher, press the 'Escape'
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  key.</p>

  <p>Using the 'Search' textbox in the upper-right of the ROM launcher, the
  listing can be narrowed down, showing only the ROMs that match the pattern
  you enter.</p>

  <p>
  <h3><b><u>Command Menu</u></b></h3>

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  <p>While playing a game, normally one would use the keyboard shortcuts for controlling the
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  'virtual' switches in Stella (ie, the commands associated with the
  function keys as described in
  <b>Getting Started - <a href="#Keyboard">Keyboard Layout</a></b>).
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  However, another alternative is available. Pressing the '\' key toggles
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  a command menu dialog as follows:</p>
  <p><img src="graphics/commandmenu.png"></p>

  <p>This dialog contains a set of buttons that represent the same functionality
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  as the function keys. You may find this useful if you cannot remember all
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  the function key events, or you wish to use Stella without a keyboard (ie,
  in a standalone gaming system).</p>
  </blockquote>

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  <h2><b><a name="Keyboard">Keyboard Layout</a></b></h2>
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  <p>The Atari 2600 console controls and controllers are mapped to the computer's
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  keyboard as shown in the following tables. However, most of these events can be
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  remapped to other keys on your keyboard or buttons on your joystick (see
  <b>Advanced Configuration - <a href="#Remapping">Event Remapping</a></b>).
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  The tables below show the default settings.<br/><br/>
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  Note: All key names are based on the US QWERTY <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Keyboard_layout">
  keyboard layout.</a>. If you use a different layout some keys may differ. You can use the
  following layout image as reference where to find the US keys on your keyboard.
  </p>
  <p><img src="graphics/qwertz.png"></p>
  <br/>

  <h2><b><a name="Hotkeys">Hotkeys</a></b></h2>
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  <p><b>Console Controls (can be remapped)</b></p>

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  <table BORDER=2 cellpadding=4>
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    <tr>
      <th>Function</th>
      <th>Key (Standard)</th>
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      <th>Key (macOS)</th>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Exit emulator</td>
      <td>Control + q</td>
      <td>Cmd + q</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Exit game mode/enter launcher mode</td>
      <td>Escape</td>
      <td>Escape</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Enter/exit options mode</td>
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      <td>Tab/Escape</td>
      <td>Tab/Escape</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Enter/exit command mode</td>
      <td>Backslash (\)</td>
      <td>Backslash (\)</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Enter/exit debugger</td>
      <td>Backquote (`)</td>
      <td>Backquote (`)</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Select Game</td>
      <td>F1</td>
      <td>F1</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Reset Game</td>
      <td>F2</td>
      <td>F2</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Color TV</td>
      <td>F3</td>
      <td>F3</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Black/White TV</td>
      <td>F4</td>
      <td>F4</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td>Left Player Difficulty A</td>
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      <td>F5</td>
      <td>F5</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td>Left Player Difficulty B</td>
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      <td>F6</td>
      <td>F6</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td>Right Player Difficulty A</td>
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      <td>F7</td>
      <td>F7</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td>Right Player Difficulty B</td>
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      <td>F8</td>
      <td>F8</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Save state to current slot</td>
      <td>F9</td>
      <td>F9</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Change current state slot</td>
      <td>F10</td>
      <td>F10</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Load state from current slot</td>
      <td>F11</td>
      <td>F11</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Save PNG snapshot</td>
      <td>F12</td>
      <td>F12</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Pause/resume emulation</td>
      <td>Pause</td>
      <td>&nbsp;</td>
    </tr>
  </table>


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  <p><b>Joystick/BoosterGrip Controller (can be remapped)</b></p>
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  <table BORDER=2>
    <tr>
      <th>Left Joystick (Joy0)</th>
      <th>Right Joystick (Joy1)</th>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>
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        <table BORDER=1 cellpadding=4>
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          <tr>
            <th>Function</th>
            <th>Key</th>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Joystick Up</td>
            <td>Up arrow</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Joystick Down</td>
            <td>Down arrow</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Joystick Left</td>
            <td>Left arrow</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Joystick Right</td>
            <td>Right arrow</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Fire Button</td>
            <td>Space</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Trigger Button</td>
            <td>4</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Booster Button</td>
            <td>5</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </td>

      <td>
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        <table BORDER=1 cellpadding=4>
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          <tr>
            <th>Function</th>
            <th>Key</th>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Joystick Up</td>
            <td>Y</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Joystick Down</td>
            <td>H</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Joystick Left</td>
            <td>G</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Joystick Right</td>
            <td>J</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Fire Button</td>
            <td>F</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Trigger Button</td>
            <td>6</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Booster Button</td>
            <td>7</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>
  </table>

  <p><b>Paddle Controller digital emulation (can be remapped independently of joystick controller)</b></p>

  <table BORDER=2>
    <tr>
      <th>Left Paddles</th>
      <th>Right Paddles</th>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>
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        <table BORDER=1 cellpadding=4>
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          <tr>
            <th>Function</th>
            <th>Key</th>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 0 decrease</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Left'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 0 increase</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Right'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 0 Fire</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Fire'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 1 decrease</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Up'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 1 increase</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Down'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 1 Fire</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Booster'</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </td>

      <td>
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        <table BORDER=1 cellpadding=4>
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          <tr>
            <th>Function</th>
            <th>Key</th>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 2 decrease</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Left'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 2 increase</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Right'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 2 Fire</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Fire'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 3 decrease</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Up'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 3 increase</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Down'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Paddle 3 Fire</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Booster'</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>
  </table>

  <p><b>Driving Controller (cannot be remapped, always associated with joystick controller)</b></p>

  <table BORDER=2>
    <tr>
      <th>Left Driving</th>
      <th>Right Driving</th>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>
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        <table BORDER=1 cellpadding=4>
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          <tr>
            <th>Function</th>
            <th>Key</th>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Left Direction</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Left'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Right Direction</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Right'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Fire Button</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Fire'</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </td>

      <td>
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        <table BORDER=1 cellpadding=4>
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          <tr>
            <th>Function</th>
            <th>Key</th>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Left Direction</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Left'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Right Direction</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Right'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Fire Button</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Fire'</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>
  </table>

  <p><b>Sega Genesis Controller (cannot be remapped, always associated with joystick and booster-grip controllers)</b></p>

  <table BORDER=2>
    <tr>
      <th>Left Pad</th>
      <th>Right Pad</th>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>
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        <table BORDER=1 cellpadding=4>
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          <tr>
            <th>Function</th>
            <th>Key</th>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Pad Up</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Up'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Pad Down</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Down'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Pad Left</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Left'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Pad Right</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Right'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Button 'B'</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Fire'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Button 'C'</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy0 Booster'</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </td>

      <td>
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        <table BORDER=1 cellpadding=4>
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          <tr>
            <th>Function</th>
            <th>Key</th>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Pad Up</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Up'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Pad Down</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Down'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Pad Left</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Left'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Pad Right</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Right'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Button 'B'</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Fire'</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>Button 'C'</td>
            <td>Same as 'Joy1 Booster'</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>
  </table>

  <p><b>Keypad Controller (can be remapped)</b></p>

  <table BORDER=2>
    <tr>
      <th>Left Keypad</th>
      <th>Right Keypad</th>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>
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          <tr>
            <th>Pad Button</th>
            <th>Key</th>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>1</td>
            <td>1</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>2</td>
            <td>2</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>3</td>
            <td>3</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>4</td>
            <td>Q</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>5</td>
            <td>W</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>6</td>
            <td>E</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>7</td>
            <td>A</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>8</td>
            <td>S</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>9</td>
            <td>D</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>.</td>
            <td>Z</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>0</td>
            <td>X</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>#</td>
            <td>C</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </td>

      <td>
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        <table BORDER=1 cellpadding=4>
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          <tr>
            <th>Pad Button</th>
            <th>Key</th>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>1</td>
            <td>8</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>2</td>
            <td>9</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>3</td>
            <td>0</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>4</td>
            <td>I</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>5</td>
            <td>O</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>6</td>
            <td>P</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>7</td>
            <td>K</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>8</td>
            <td>L</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>9</td>
            <td>;</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>.</td>
            <td>,</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>0</td>
            <td>.</td>
          </tr>

          <tr>
            <td>#</td>
            <td>/</td>
          </tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>
  </table>

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  <p><b>CompuMate Controller (cannot be remapped)</b></p>

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  <table BORDER=2 cellpadding=4>
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    <tr><th>CompuMate</th> <th>Key</th></tr>
    <tr><td>0 - 9 </td><td>0 - 9 </td></tr>
    <tr><td>A - Z </td><td>A - Z </td></tr>
    <tr><td>Comma </td><td>Comma </td></tr>
    <tr><td>Period </td><td>Period </td></tr>
    <tr><td>Func </td><td>Control (left or right) </td></tr>
    <tr><td>Shift </td><td>Shift (left or right) </td></tr>
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    <tr><td>Enter </td><td>Return/Enter </td></tr>
    <tr><td>Space </td><td>Space </td></tr>
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    <tr><td>Func-Space </td><td>Backspace </td></tr>
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    <tr><td>+ </td><td>+ or Shift-1 </td></tr>
    <tr><td>- </td><td>- or Shift-2</td></tr>
    <tr><td>* </td><td>Shift-3 </td></tr>
    <tr><td>/ </td><td>/ or Shift-4 </td></tr>
    <tr><td>= </td><td>= or Shift-5 </td></tr>
    <tr><td>? </td><td>? (Shift-/) or Shift-6 </td></tr>
    <tr><td>$ </td><td>Shift-7 </td></tr>
    <tr><td>[ </td><td>[ or Shift-8 </td></tr>
    <tr><td>] </td><td>] or Shift-9 </td></tr>
    <tr><td>&quot; </td><td>" (Shift-') or Shift-0 </td></tr>

  </table>

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  <p><b>TV effects (cannot be remapped, only active in TIA mode)</b></p>
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  <table BORDER=2 cellpadding=4>
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    <tr>
      <th>Function</th>
      <th>Key (Standard)</th>
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      <th>Key (macOS)</th>
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    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Disable TV effects</td>
      <td>Alt + 1</td>
      <td>Cmd + 1</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Select 'Composite' preset</td>
      <td>Alt + 2</td>
      <td>Cmd + 2</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Select 'S-video' preset</td>
      <td>Alt + 3</td>
      <td>Cmd + 3</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Select 'RGB' preset</td>
      <td>Alt + 4</td>
      <td>Cmd + 4</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Select 'Badly adjusted' preset</td>
      <td>Alt + 5</td>
      <td>Cmd + 5</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Select 'Custom' preset</td>
      <td>Alt + 6</td>
      <td>Cmd + 6</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Decrease scanline intensity</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + 7</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + 7</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Increase scanline intensity</td>
      <td>Alt + 7</td>
      <td>Cmd + 7</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Disable scanline interpolation</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + 8</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + 8</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Enable scanline interpolation</td>
      <td>Alt + 8</td>
      <td>Cmd + 8</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Select previous 'Custom' mode attribute (*)</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + 9</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + 9</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Select next 'Custom' mode attribute (*)</td>
      <td>Alt + 9</td>
      <td>Cmd + 9</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Decrease 'Custom' selected attribute value (*)</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + 0</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + 0</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Increase 'Custom' selected attribute value (*)</td>
      <td>Alt + 0</td>
      <td>Cmd + 0</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td colspan="3"><center><font size="-1">
      Items marked as (*) are only available in 'Custom' preset mode</font></center></td>
    </tr>
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  </table>

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  <a name="DeveloperKeys"></a>
  <p><b>Developer Keys in TIA mode (cannot be remapped)</b></p>

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  <table BORDER=2 cellpadding=4>
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    <tr>
      <th>Function</th>
      <th>Key (Standard)</th>
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      <th>Key (macOS)</th>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Set "Display.YStart" to next <i>larger</i> value</td>
      <td>Alt + PageUp</td>
      <td>Cmd + PageUp</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Set "Display.YStart" to next <i>smaller</i> value</td>
      <td>Alt + PageDown</td>
      <td>Cmd + PageDown</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Set "Display.Height" to next <i>larger</i> value</td>
      <td>Control + PageUp</td>
      <td>Control + PageUp</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Set "Display.Height" to next <i>smaller</i> value</td>
      <td>Control + PageDown</td>
      <td>Control + PageDown</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td>Toggle frame stats (scanline count/FPS/BS type etc.)</td>
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      <td>Alt + L</td>
      <td>Cmd + L</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Player0 object</td>
      <td>Alt + z</td>
      <td>Cmd + z</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Player1 object</td>
      <td>Alt + x</td>
      <td>Cmd + x</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Missile0 object</td>
      <td>Alt + c</td>
      <td>Cmd + c</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Missile1 object</td>
      <td>Alt + v</td>
      <td>Cmd + v</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Ball object</td>
      <td>Alt + b</td>
      <td>Cmd + b</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Playfield object</td>
      <td>Alt + n</td>
      <td>Cmd + n</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Player0 collisions</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + z</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + z</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Player1 collisions</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + x</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + x</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Missile0 collisions</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + c</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + c</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Missile1 collisions</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + v</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + v</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Ball collisions</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + b</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + b</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA Playfield collisions</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + n</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + n</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle TIA 'Fixed Debug Colors' mode</td>
      <td>Alt + Comma</td>
      <td>Cmd + Comma</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td>Toggle all TIA objects</td>
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      <td>Alt + .</td>
      <td>Cmd + .</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td>Toggle all TIA collisions</td>
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      <td>Shift-Alt + .</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + .</td>
    </tr>
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    <tr>
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      <td>Toggle TV 'jitter' effect</td>
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      <td>Alt + j</td>
      <td>Cmd + j</td>
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    </tr>
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  </table>

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  <p><b>Other Keys (cannot be remapped, except those marked with (*) )</b></p>
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  <table BORDER=2 cellpadding=4>
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    <tr>
      <th>Function</th>
      <th>Key (Standard)</th>
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      <th>Key (macOS)</th>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Switch to next <i>larger</i> zoom level</td>
      <td>Alt + =</td>
      <td>Cmd + =</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Switch to next <i>smaller</i> zoom level</td>
      <td>Alt + -</td>
      <td>Cmd + -</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle fullscreen/windowed mode</td>
      <td>Alt + Enter</td>
      <td>Cmd + Enter</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Decrease volume (*)</td>
      <td>Alt + [</td>
      <td>Cmd + [</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Increase volume (*)</td>
      <td>Alt + ]</td>
      <td>Cmd + ]</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td>Switch display format in <i>increasing</i> order (NTSC/PAL/SECAM etc.)</td>
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      <td>Control + f</td>
      <td>Control + f</td>
    </tr>

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    <tr>
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      <td>Switch display format in <i>decreasing</i> order (NTSC/PAL/SECAM etc.)</td>
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      <td>Shift-Control + f</td>
      <td>Shift-Control + f</td>
    </tr>

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    <tr>
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      <td>Switch mouse between controller emulation modes (see <b>Game Properties - <a href="#Controller">Controller</a></b>)</td>
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      <td>Control + 0</td>
      <td>Control + 0</td>
    </tr>

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    <tr>
      <td>Toggle grab mouse</td>
      <td>Control + g</td>
      <td>Control + g</td>
    </tr>

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    <tr>
      <td>Swap Stelladaptor/2600-daptor port ordering</td>
      <td>Control + 1</td>
      <td>Control + 1</td>
    </tr>

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    <tr>
      <td>Reload current ROM (singlecart ROM, TIA mode)<br>
        Load next game in ROM (multicart ROM, TIA mode)</td>
      <td>Control + r</td>
      <td>Control + r</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Reload ROM listing (ROM launcher mode)</td>
      <td>Control + r</td>
      <td>Control + r</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Emulate 'frying' effect (TIA mode) (*)</td>
      <td>Backspace</td>
      <td>Backspace</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Go to parent directory (UI mode) (*)</td>
      <td>Backspace</td>
      <td>Backspace</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle 'phosphor' effect</td>
      <td>Alt + p</td>
      <td>Cmd + p</td>
    </tr>

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    <tr>
      <td>Decrease 'phosphor' blend in phosphor mode</td>
      <td>Alt + i</td>
      <td>Cmd + i</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Increase 'phosphor' blend in phosphor mode</td>
      <td>Alt + o</td>
      <td>Cmd + o</td>
    </tr>

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    <tr>
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      <td>Switch palette (Standard/Z26/User)</td>
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      <td>Control + p</td>
      <td>Control + p</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Toggle PAL color-loss effect</td>
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      <td>Control + L</td>
      <td>Control + L</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td>Save continuous PNG snapshots (per interval defined in <a href="#Snapshots"><b>Snapshot Settings</b></a>)</td>
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      <td>Alt + s</td>
      <td>Cmd + s</td>
    </tr>
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    <tr>
      <td>Save continuous PNG snapshots (every frame)</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + s</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + s</td>
    </tr>
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    <tr>
      <td>Toggle 'Time Machine' mode</td>
      <td>Alt + t</td>
      <td>Cmd + t</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Enter/Exit the <a href="#TimeMachine"><b>Time Machine</b></a> dialog</td>
      <td>t to enter, t/Escape/Space to exit</td>
      <td>t to enter, t/Escape/Space to exit</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td>Rewind by one state (enters the <a href="#TimeMachine"><b>Time Machine</b></a> dialog)</td>
      <td>Alt + Left arrow</td>
      <td>Cmd + Left arrow</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Rewind by 10 states (enters the <a href="#TimeMachine"><b>Time Machine</b></a> dialog)</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + Left arrow</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + Left arrow</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Rewind all states (enters the <a href="#TimeMachine"><b>Time Machine</b></a> dialog)</td>
      <td>Alt + Down arrow</td>
      <td>Cmd + Down arrow</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Unwind by one state (enters the <a href="#TimeMachine"><b>Time Machine</b></a> dialog)</td>
      <td>Alt + Right arrow</td>
      <td>Cmd + Right arrow</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Unwind by 10 states (enters the <a href="#TimeMachine"><b>Time Machine</b></a> dialog)</td>
      <td>Shift-Alt + Right arrow</td>
      <td>Shift-Cmd + Right arrow</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td>Unwind all states (enters the <a href="#TimeMachine"><b>Time Machine</b></a> dialog)</td>
      <td>Alt + Up arrow</td>
      <td>Cmd + Up arrow</td>
    </tr>
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  </table>

  <p><b>UI keys in Text Editing areas (cannot be remapped)</b></p>

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  <table BORDER=2 cellpadding=4>
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    <tr><th>Key</th><th>Editor Function</th></tr>
    <tr><td>Home</td><td>Move cursor to beginning of line</td></tr>
    <tr><td>End</td><td>Move cursor to end of line</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Delete</td><td>Remove character to right of cursor</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Backspace</td><td>Remove character to left of cursor</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Control-a</td><td>Same function as 'Home'</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Control-e</td><td>Same function as 'End'</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Control-d</td><td>Same function as 'Delete'</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Control-k</td><td>Remove all characters from cursor to end of line</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Control-u</td><td>Remove all characters from cursor to beginning of line</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Control-w</td><td>Remove entire word to left of cursor</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Control-Left</td><td>Move cursor to beginning of word to the left</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Control-Right</td><td>Move cursor to beginning of word to the right</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Control-c</td><td>Copy entire line to clipboard (not complete)</td></tr>
    <tr><td>Control-v</td><td>Paste clipboard contents (not complete)</td></tr>
  </table>
  </blockquote>
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  <h2><b><a name="ControlMap">Controller Map</a></b></h2>
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  <blockquote>

  <p>Some Atari (virtual) controllers are simulated with more than one computer controller, and
  there are several special cases where controllers are active in certain modes only, as the table
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  below shows. Items marked as <b>(+ extra)</b> indicate that the computer controller may not have
  enough buttons/axes etc. to fully emulate the device, so extra functionality must be mapped to other
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  controllers.</p>

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  <table BORDER=2 cellpadding=4>
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    <tr>
      <th>&nbsp;</th>
      <th colspan="5">Computer</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th>Virtual<br>Controller</th>
      <th>Keyboard</th>
      <th>Joystick</th>
      <th>Mouse<br>(auto mode)</th>
      <th>Mouse<br>(specific axis)</th>
      <th>Stelladaptor/<br>2600-daptor</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th> Joystick</th>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th> Paddles</th>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
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      <td> &#x2713;</td>
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      <td> &#x2713;</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th> Booster</th>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713; (+ extra)</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2713; (+ extra)</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th> Genesis</th>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713; (+ extra)</td>
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      <td> &#x2713;</td>
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      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th> Keyboard</th>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
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      <td> &#x2713; (+ extra)</td>
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      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
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      <td> &#x2713; (2600-daptor II)</td>
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    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th> Driving</th>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
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      <th> Trackball/Mouse</th>
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      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713; (axis ignored)</td>
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      <td> &#x2713;</td>
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    </tr>
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    <tr>
      <th> CompuMate</th>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
    </tr>
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    <tr>
      <th> Mindlink</th>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
      <td> &#x2713;</td>
      <td> &#x2713; (axis ignored)</td>
      <td> &#x2715;</td>
    </tr>
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    <tr>
      <th> AtariVox</th>
      <td> N/A</td>
      <td> N/A</td>
      <td> N/A</td>
      <td> N/A</td>
      <td> N/A</td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <th> SaveKey</th>
      <td> N/A</td>
      <td> N/A</td>
      <td> N/A</td>
      <td> N/A</td>
      <td> N/A</td>
    </tr>
  </table>
  </blockquote>

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  <br><br>
  <p><h2>
  <a name="TimeMachine">Stella's 'Time Machine'</a></h2>

  <p>A special feature of Stella is the 'Time Machine' mode. In this mode, Stella
  automatically creates savestates in regular, user-defined intervals. At any time,
  the user can interrupt the current emulation and navigate back and forth
  within the saved timeline.
  This can be done either by using the Time Machine hotkeys described in
  <a href="#Hotkeys"><b>Hotkeys</b> - Other Keys</a> or by using the Time Machine
  dialog. This dialog is automatically entered when using one of the Time Machine
  hotkeys. The hotkeys continue to function within the dialog.</p>

  <p><b>Time Machine</b> dialog:</p>
  <td><img src="graphics/timemachine.png"></td>

  <p>The dialog items are explained in the following two tables.</p>

  <p><b>Top row (left to right)</b></p>
	<table border="1" cellpadding="4">
	  <tr><th>Item</th><th>Description</th></tr>
	  <tr><td>Current state</td><td>Shows the currently loaded state's number</td></tr>
	  <tr><td>'Timeline' slider</td><td>Shows the position of the current state in the
      recorded timeline. A state can be selected by dragging the slider with the mouse.
      To visualize state compression, small marks split the timeline into five, equally
      sized state number intervals.</td></tr>
	  <tr><td>Total states</td><td>Shows the total number of save states in the
      Time Machine</td></tr>
	</table>
  <p><b>Bottom row (left to right)</b></p>
	<table border="1" cellpadding="4">
	  <tr><th>Item</th><th>Description</th></tr>
	  <tr><td>Current time</td><td>Shows the time of the currently selected status,
      relative to the first one</td></tr>
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	  <tr><td>'Start/Stop' button</td><td>Starts or stops the Time Machine</td></tr>
	  <tr><td>'Continue' button</td><td>Exits the dialog and continues emulation</td></tr>
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	  <tr><td>'Rewind All' button</td><td>Navigates back to the begin of the timeline</td></tr>
	  <tr><td>'Rewind One' button</td><td>Navigates back by one state</td></tr>
	  <tr><td>'Unwind One' button</td><td>Navigates forward by one state</td></tr>
	  <tr><td>'Unwind All' button</td><td>Navigates forward to the end of the timeline</td></tr>
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	  <tr><td>Navigation info</td><td>Informs about the interval of the user's last
      Time Machine navigation. The interval can vary if the timeline is compressed.</td></tr>
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	  <tr><td>Total time</td><td>Shows the total time covered by the save states
      (aka 'Horizon')</td></tr>
	</table>
  <br>

  <p>The 'Time Machine' mode can be configured by the user. For details see
  <a href="#Debugger"><b>Developer Options</b> - Time Machine</a></h2> tab.</p>

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<!-- /////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////////  -->
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  <br><br>
  <p><h1>
  <a name="Advanced">Advanced Configuration</a></h1>
  <hr>

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  <p>The default options in Stella are meant to cater to as many situations as
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  possible. As such, you may never need to change many of its options. However,
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  Stella is very configurable, and if you want to change its behaviour in some way,
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  there's likely a configuration option to do so. The remainder of this (lengthy)
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  section details every configurable option.</p>

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  <h2><b><a name="CommandLine">Using the Command Line</a></b></h2>
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  <blockquote>

  <p>In addition to the built in ROM launcher, Stella can also be used from the
  commandline (assuming your operating system has a commandline).</p>

  <p>To run Stella from the commandline, use the following format:</p>

  <pre>   stella [options ...] ROM_FILENAME</pre>

  <p><b>Options</b> ('0' or 'false' indicates false, '1' or 'true' indicates true,
    others are self-explanatory):</p>

  <table BORDER=2>
    <tr>
      <th>Argument</th>
      <th>Description</th>
    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-video &lt;direct3d|opengl|opengles2|opengles|software&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Use the given rendering backend (where applicable); default is the best available
          mode detected.</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-vsync &lt;1|0&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Synchronize screen updates to the vertical blank period.
          This can result in smoother updates, and eliminate tearing.</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-fullscreen &lt;1|0&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Enable fullscreen mode.</td>
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    </tr>

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    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-center &lt;1|0&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Centers game window (if possible).</td>
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    </tr>

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    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-palette &lt;standard|z26|user&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Set the palette to either normal Stella, the one used in the z26
        emulator, or a user-defined palette.</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-speed &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Control the emulation speed (as a percentage, 10 - 1000).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-uimessages &lt;1|0&gt;</pre></td>
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      <td>Enable or disable display of message in the UI. Note that messages
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        indicating serious errors override this setting, and are always
        shown.</td>
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    </tr>
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    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-sound &lt;1|0&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Enable or disable sound generation.</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-fragsize &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
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      <td>Specify the sound fragment size to use. Linux/Mac seems to work
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        with 512, Windows usually needs 1024.</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-freq &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
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      <td>Set sound sample output frequency (11025, 22050, 31400, 44100, 48000)
        Default is 31400. Do not change unless you experience sound
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        issues.</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-volume &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Set the volume (0 - 100).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tia.zoom &lt;zoom&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Use the specified zoom level (integer) while in TIA/emulation mode.
      </td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tia.inter &lt;1|0&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Use interpolation for the TIA image (results in blending/smoothing
        of the image).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tia.aspectn &lt;number&gt;<br>-tia.aspectp &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Specify the amount (as a percentage) to scale the
        TIA image width in NTSC and PAL mode. Since many video modes do not
        use square pixels, you can reduce width until the pixels appear square.
        Allowable values are 80 - 120; I find 85 - 90 gives the most authentic
        look for NTSC, and 105 - 110 for PAL.</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tia.fsfill &lt;1|0&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Stretch TIA image completely while in fullscreen mode
        (vs. an integral stretch which won't necessarily completely fill the screen).</td>
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    </tr>

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    <tr>
      <td><pre>-tia.dbgcolors &lt;roygbp&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Assigns the colours (R)ed, (O)range, (Y)ellow, (G)reen, (B)lue and (P)urple
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        to each graphical register P0/M0/P1/M1/PF/BL, respectively. Currently,
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        these change be changed around to apply different colours to the
        respective register.
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><pre>-tv.filter &lt;0 - 5&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects, 0 is disabled, next numbers in
        sequence represent presets for 'Composite', 'S-Video', 'RGB', 'Bad Adjust',
        and 'Custom' modes.</td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><pre>-tv.phosphor &lt;always|byrom&gt;</pre></td>
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      <td>Determines how phosphor mode is enabled. If 'always', then the
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        ROM properties entry is ignored, and phosphor mode is always turned
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        on. Otherwise, the ROM properties determine whether phosphor mode
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        is used for each ROM.
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><pre>-tv.phosblend &lt;0 - 100&gt;</pre></td>
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      <td>Enable phosphor blending level; 0 implies no mixing, and 100
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        is full mixing (not recommended). Note that this doesn't actually
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        enable phosphor mode; that is done for each ROM in the ROM properties.
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        Higher blend values will intensify the phosphor effect. Depending on your
        display and personal preferences, the optimal default for you may vary.
        Slow LCDs (especially for office use) may only need a low blend of
        around 30, while fast switching gamer LCDs may need about 70 to look
        similar to a CRT.
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      </td>
    </tr>

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    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.scanlines &lt;0 - 100&gt;</pre></td>
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      <td>TV effects scanline intensity, where 0 means completely off. Note: No scanlines in 1x mode snapshots.</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.scaninter &lt;1|0&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects scanline interpolation, resulting
        in blending/smoothing of the scanlines.</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.contrast &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects 'contrast' (only available in custom mode,
        range -1.0 to 1.0).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.brightness &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects 'brightness' (only available in custom mode,
        range -1.0 to 1.0).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.hue &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects 'hue' (only available in custom mode,
        range -1.0 to 1.0).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.saturation &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects 'saturation' (only available in custom mode,
        range -1.0 to 1.0).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.gamma &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects 'gamma' (only available in custom mode,
        range -1.0 to 1.0).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.sharpness &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects 'sharpness' (only available in custom mode,
        range -1.0 to 1.0).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.resolution &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects 'resolution' (only available in custom mode,
        range -1.0 to 1.0).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.artifacts &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects 'artifacts' (only available in custom mode,
        range -1.0 to 1.0).</td>
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    </tr>

    <tr>
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      <td><pre>-tv.fringing &lt;number&gt;</pre></td>
      <td>Blargg TV effects 'fringing' (only available in custom mode,
        range -1.0 to 1.0).</td>
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