overload.t 85.7 KB
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#!./perl -T
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BEGIN {
    chdir 't' if -d 't';
    @INC = '../lib';
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    require Config;
    if (($Config::Config{'extensions'} !~ m!\bList/Util\b!) ){
	print "1..0 # Skip -- Perl configured without List::Util module\n";
	exit 0;
    }
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}

package Oscalar;
use overload ( 
				# Anonymous subroutines:
'+'	=>	sub {new Oscalar $ {$_[0]}+$_[1]},
'-'	=>	sub {new Oscalar
		       $_[2]? $_[1]-${$_[0]} : ${$_[0]}-$_[1]},
'<=>'	=>	sub {new Oscalar
		       $_[2]? $_[1]-${$_[0]} : ${$_[0]}-$_[1]},
'cmp'	=>	sub {new Oscalar
		       $_[2]? ($_[1] cmp ${$_[0]}) : (${$_[0]} cmp $_[1])},
'*'	=>	sub {new Oscalar ${$_[0]}*$_[1]},
'/'	=>	sub {new Oscalar 
		       $_[2]? $_[1]/${$_[0]} :
			 ${$_[0]}/$_[1]},
'%'	=>	sub {new Oscalar
		       $_[2]? $_[1]%${$_[0]} : ${$_[0]}%$_[1]},
'**'	=>	sub {new Oscalar
		       $_[2]? $_[1]**${$_[0]} : ${$_[0]}-$_[1]},

qw(
""	stringify
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0+	numify)			# Order of arguments insignificant
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);

sub new {
  my $foo = $_[1];
  bless \$foo, $_[0];
}

sub stringify { "${$_[0]}" }
sub numify { 0 + "${$_[0]}" }	# Not needed, additional overhead
				# comparing to direct compilation based on
				# stringify

package main;

$| = 1;
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BEGIN { require './test.pl'; require './charset_tools.pl' }
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plan tests => 5362;
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use Scalar::Util qw(tainted);
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$a = new Oscalar "087";
$b= "$a";

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is($b, $a);
is($b, "087");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
is($a, $a);
is($a, "087");
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$c = $a + 7;

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is(ref $c, "Oscalar");
isnt($c, $a);
is($c, "94");
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$b=$a;

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is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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$b++;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "88");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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$c=$b;
$c-=$a;

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is(ref $c, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($c, "1");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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$b=1;
$b+=$a;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "88");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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eval q[ package Oscalar; use overload ('++' => sub { $ {$_[0]}++;$_[0] } ) ];

$b=$a;

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is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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$b++;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "88");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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package Oscalar;
$dummy=bless \$dummy;		# Now cache of method should be reloaded
package main;

$b=$a;
$b++;				

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "88");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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undef $b;			# Destroying updates tables too...
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eval q[package Oscalar; use overload ('++' => sub { $ {$_[0]} += 2; $_[0] } ) ];

$b=$a;

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is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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$b++;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
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is($b, "89");
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is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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package Oscalar;
$dummy=bless \$dummy;		# Now cache of method should be reloaded
package main;

$b++;				

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
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is($b, "91");
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is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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$b=$a;
$b++;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "89");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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ok($b? 1:0);
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eval q[ package Oscalar; use overload ('=' => sub {$main::copies++; 
						   package Oscalar;
						   local $new=$ {$_[0]};
						   bless \$new } ) ];

$b=new Oscalar "$a";

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "087");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
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$b++;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "89");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
is($copies, undef);
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$b+=1;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "90");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
is($copies, undef);
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$b=$a;
$b+=1;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "88");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
is($copies, undef);
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$b=$a;
$b++;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "89");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
is($copies, 1);
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eval q[package Oscalar; use overload ('+=' => sub {$ {$_[0]} += 3*$_[1];
						   $_[0] } ) ];
$c=new Oscalar;			# Cause rehash

$b=$a;
$b+=1;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($a, "087");
is($b, "90");
is(ref $a, "Oscalar");
is($copies, 2);
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$b+=$b;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($b, "360");
is($copies, 2);
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$b=-$b;

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($b, "-360");
is($copies, 2);
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$b=abs($b);

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($b, "360");
is($copies, 2);
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$b=abs($b);

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is(ref $b, "Oscalar");
is($b, "360");
is($copies, 2);
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eval q[package Oscalar; 
       use overload ('x' => sub {new Oscalar ( $_[2] ? "_.$_[1]._" x $ {$_[0]}
					      : "_.${$_[0]}._" x $_[1])}) ];

$a=new Oscalar "yy";
$a x= 3;
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is($a, "_.yy.__.yy.__.yy._");
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eval q[package Oscalar; 
       use overload ('.' => sub {new Oscalar ( $_[2] ? 
					      "_.$_[1].__.$ {$_[0]}._"
					      : "_.$ {$_[0]}.__.$_[1]._")}) ];

$a=new Oscalar "xx";

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is("b${a}c", "_._.b.__.xx._.__.c._");
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# Check inheritance of overloading;
{
  package OscalarI;
  @ISA = 'Oscalar';
}

$aI = new OscalarI "$a";
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is(ref $aI, "OscalarI");
is("$aI", "xx");
is($aI, "xx");
is("b${aI}c", "_._.b.__.xx._.__.c._");
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# Here we test that both "no overload" and
# blessing to a package update hash
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eval "package Oscalar; no overload '.'";

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is("b${a}", "bxx");
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$x="1";
bless \$x, Oscalar;
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is("b${a}c", "bxxc");
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new Oscalar 1;
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is("b${a}c", "bxxc");
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# Negative overloading:

$na = eval { ~$a };
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like($@, qr/no method found/);
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# Check AUTOLOADING:

*Oscalar::AUTOLOAD = 
  sub { *{"Oscalar::$AUTOLOAD"} = sub {"_!_" . shift() . "_!_"} ;
	goto &{"Oscalar::$AUTOLOAD"}};

eval "package Oscalar; sub comple; use overload '~' => 'comple'";

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$na = eval { ~$a };
is($@, '');
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bless \$x, Oscalar;

$na = eval { ~$a };		# Hash updated
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warn "'$na', $@" if $@;
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ok !$@;
is($na, '_!_xx_!_');
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$na = 0;

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$na = eval { ~$aI };
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is($@, '');
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bless \$x, OscalarI;

$na = eval { ~$aI };
print $@;

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ok(!$@);
is($na, '_!_xx_!_');
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eval "package Oscalar; sub rshft; use overload '>>' => 'rshft'";

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$na = eval { $aI >> 1 };
is($@, '');
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bless \$x, OscalarI;

$na = 0;

$na = eval { $aI >> 1 };
print $@;

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ok(!$@);
is($na, '_!_xx_!_');
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# warn overload::Method($a, '0+'), "\n";
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is(overload::Method($a, '0+'), \&Oscalar::numify);
is(overload::Method($aI,'0+'), \&Oscalar::numify);
ok(overload::Overloaded($aI));
ok(!overload::Overloaded('overload'));
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ok(! defined overload::Method($aI, '<<'));
ok(! defined overload::Method($a, '<'));
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like (overload::StrVal($aI), qr/^OscalarI=SCALAR\(0x[\da-fA-F]+\)$/);
is(overload::StrVal(\$aI), "@{[\$aI]}");
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# Check overloading by methods (specified deep in the ISA tree).
{
  package OscalarII;
  @ISA = 'OscalarI';
  sub Oscalar::lshft {"_<<_" . shift() . "_<<_"}
  eval "package OscalarI; use overload '<<' => 'lshft', '|' => 'lshft'";
}

$aaII = "087";
$aII = \$aaII;
bless $aII, 'OscalarII';
bless \$fake, 'OscalarI';		# update the hash
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is(($aI | 3), '_<<_xx_<<_');
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# warn $aII << 3;
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is(($aII << 3), '_<<_087_<<_');
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{
  BEGIN { $int = 7; overload::constant 'integer' => sub {$int++; shift}; }
  $out = 2**10;
}
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is($int, 9);
is($out, 1024);
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is($int, 9);
{
  BEGIN { overload::constant 'integer' => sub {$int++; shift()+1}; }
  eval q{$out = 42};
}
is($int, 10);
is($out, 43);
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$foo = 'foo';
$foo1 = 'f\'o\\o';
{
  BEGIN { $q = $qr = 7; 
	  overload::constant 'q' => sub {$q++; push @q, shift, ($_[1] || 'none'); shift},
			     'qr' => sub {$qr++; push @qr, shift, ($_[1] || 'none'); shift}; }
  $out = 'foo';
  $out1 = 'f\'o\\o';
  $out2 = "a\a$foo,\,";
  /b\b$foo.\./;
}

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is($out, 'foo');
is($out, $foo);
is($out1, 'f\'o\\o');
is($out1, $foo1);
is($out2, "a\afoo,\,");
is("@q", "foo q f'o\\\\o q a\\a qq ,\\, qq");
is($q, 11);
is("@qr", "b\\b qq .\\. qq");
is($qr, 9);
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{
  $_ = '!<b>!foo!<-.>!';
  BEGIN { overload::constant 'q' => sub {push @q1, shift, ($_[1] || 'none'); "_<" . (shift) . ">_"},
			     'qr' => sub {push @qr1, shift, ($_[1] || 'none'); "!<" . (shift) . ">!"}; }
  $out = 'foo';
  $out1 = 'f\'o\\o';
  $out2 = "a\a$foo,\,";
  $res = /b\b$foo.\./;
  $a = <<EOF;
oups
EOF
  $b = <<'EOF';
oups1
EOF
  $c = bareword;
  m'try it';
  s'first part'second part';
  s/yet another/tail here/;
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  tr/A-Z/a-z/;
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}

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is($out, '_<foo>_');
is($out1, '_<f\'o\\o>_');
is($out2, "_<a\a>_foo_<,\,>_");
is("@q1", "foo q f'o\\\\o q a\\a qq ,\\, qq oups
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 qq oups1
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 q second part q tail here s A-Z tr a-z tr");
is("@qr1", "b\\b qq .\\. qq try it q first part q yet another qq");
is($res, 1);
is($a, "_<oups
>_");
is($b, "_<oups1
>_");
is($c, "bareword");
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{
  package symbolic;		# Primitive symbolic calculator
  use overload nomethod => \&wrap, '""' => \&str, '0+' => \&num,
      '=' => \&cpy, '++' => \&inc, '--' => \&dec;

  sub new { shift; bless ['n', @_] }
  sub cpy {
    my $self = shift;
    bless [@$self], ref $self;
  }
  sub inc { $_[0] = bless ['++', $_[0], 1]; }
  sub dec { $_[0] = bless ['--', $_[0], 1]; }
  sub wrap {
    my ($obj, $other, $inv, $meth) = @_;
    if ($meth eq '++' or $meth eq '--') {
      @$obj = ($meth, (bless [@$obj]), 1); # Avoid circular reference
      return $obj;
    }
    ($obj, $other) = ($other, $obj) if $inv;
    bless [$meth, $obj, $other];
  }
  sub str {
    my ($meth, $a, $b) = @{+shift};
    $a = 'u' unless defined $a;
    if (defined $b) {
      "[$meth $a $b]";
    } else {
      "[$meth $a]";
    }
  } 
  my %subr = ( 'n' => sub {$_[0]} );
  foreach my $op (split " ", $overload::ops{with_assign}) {
    $subr{$op} = $subr{"$op="} = eval "sub {shift() $op shift()}";
  }
  my @bins = qw(binary 3way_comparison num_comparison str_comparison);
  foreach my $op (split " ", "@overload::ops{ @bins }") {
    $subr{$op} = eval "sub {shift() $op shift()}";
  }
  foreach my $op (split " ", "@overload::ops{qw(unary func)}") {
    $subr{$op} = eval "sub {$op shift()}";
  }
  $subr{'++'} = $subr{'+'};
  $subr{'--'} = $subr{'-'};
  
  sub num {
    my ($meth, $a, $b) = @{+shift};
    my $subr = $subr{$meth} 
      or die "Do not know how to ($meth) in symbolic";
    $a = $a->num if ref $a eq __PACKAGE__;
    $b = $b->num if ref $b eq __PACKAGE__;
    $subr->($a,$b);
  }
  sub TIESCALAR { my $pack = shift; $pack->new(@_) }
  sub FETCH { shift }
  sub nop {  }		# Around a bug
  sub vars { my $p = shift; tie($_, $p), $_->nop foreach @_; }
  sub STORE { 
    my $obj = shift; 
    $#$obj = 1; 
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    $obj->[1] = shift;
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  }
}

{
  my $foo = new symbolic 11;
  my $baz = $foo++;
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  is((sprintf "%d", $foo), '12');
  is((sprintf "%d", $baz), '11');
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  my $bar = $foo;
  $baz = ++$foo;
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  is((sprintf "%d", $foo), '13');
  is((sprintf "%d", $bar), '12');
  is((sprintf "%d", $baz), '13');
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  my $ban = $foo;
  $baz = ($foo += 1);
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  is((sprintf "%d", $foo), '14');
  is((sprintf "%d", $bar), '12');
  is((sprintf "%d", $baz), '14');
  is((sprintf "%d", $ban), '13');
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  $baz = 0;
  $baz = $foo++;
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  is((sprintf "%d", $foo), '15');
  is((sprintf "%d", $baz), '14');
  is("$foo", '[++ [+= [++ [++ [n 11] 1] 1] 1] 1]');
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}

{
  my $iter = new symbolic 2;
  my $side = new symbolic 1;
  my $cnt = $iter;
  
  while ($cnt) {
    $cnt = $cnt - 1;		# The "simple" way
    $side = (sqrt(1 + $side**2) - 1)/$side;
  }
  my $pi = $side*(2**($iter+2));
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  is("$side", '[/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [n 1] 2]]] 1] [n 1]] 2]]] 1] [/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [n 1] 2]]] 1] [n 1]]]');
  is((sprintf "%f", $pi), '3.182598');
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}

{
  my $iter = new symbolic 2;
  my $side = new symbolic 1;
  my $cnt = $iter;
  
  while ($cnt--) {
    $side = (sqrt(1 + $side**2) - 1)/$side;
  }
  my $pi = $side*(2**($iter+2));
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  is("$side", '[/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [n 1] 2]]] 1] [n 1]] 2]]] 1] [/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [n 1] 2]]] 1] [n 1]]]');
  is((sprintf "%f", $pi), '3.182598');
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}

{
  my ($a, $b);
  symbolic->vars($a, $b);
  my $c = sqrt($a**2 + $b**2);
  $a = 3; $b = 4;
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  is((sprintf "%d", $c), '5');
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  $a = 12; $b = 5;
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  is((sprintf "%d", $c), '13');
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}

{
  package symbolic1;		# Primitive symbolic calculator
  # Mutator inc/dec
  use overload nomethod => \&wrap, '""' => \&str, '0+' => \&num, '=' => \&cpy;

  sub new { shift; bless ['n', @_] }
  sub cpy {
    my $self = shift;
    bless [@$self], ref $self;
  }
  sub wrap {
    my ($obj, $other, $inv, $meth) = @_;
    if ($meth eq '++' or $meth eq '--') {
      @$obj = ($meth, (bless [@$obj]), 1); # Avoid circular reference
      return $obj;
    }
    ($obj, $other) = ($other, $obj) if $inv;
    bless [$meth, $obj, $other];
  }
  sub str {
    my ($meth, $a, $b) = @{+shift};
    $a = 'u' unless defined $a;
    if (defined $b) {
      "[$meth $a $b]";
    } else {
      "[$meth $a]";
    }
  } 
  my %subr = ( 'n' => sub {$_[0]} );
  foreach my $op (split " ", $overload::ops{with_assign}) {
    $subr{$op} = $subr{"$op="} = eval "sub {shift() $op shift()}";
  }
  my @bins = qw(binary 3way_comparison num_comparison str_comparison);
  foreach my $op (split " ", "@overload::ops{ @bins }") {
    $subr{$op} = eval "sub {shift() $op shift()}";
  }
  foreach my $op (split " ", "@overload::ops{qw(unary func)}") {
    $subr{$op} = eval "sub {$op shift()}";
  }
  $subr{'++'} = $subr{'+'};
  $subr{'--'} = $subr{'-'};
  
  sub num {
    my ($meth, $a, $b) = @{+shift};
    my $subr = $subr{$meth} 
      or die "Do not know how to ($meth) in symbolic";
    $a = $a->num if ref $a eq __PACKAGE__;
    $b = $b->num if ref $b eq __PACKAGE__;
    $subr->($a,$b);
  }
  sub TIESCALAR { my $pack = shift; $pack->new(@_) }
  sub FETCH { shift }
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  sub vars { my $p = shift; tie($_, $p) foreach @_; }
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  sub STORE { 
    my $obj = shift; 
    $#$obj = 1; 
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    $obj->[1] = shift;
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  }
}

{
  my $foo = new symbolic1 11;
  my $baz = $foo++;
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  is((sprintf "%d", $foo), '12');
  is((sprintf "%d", $baz), '11');
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  my $bar = $foo;
  $baz = ++$foo;
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  is((sprintf "%d", $foo), '13');
  is((sprintf "%d", $bar), '12');
  is((sprintf "%d", $baz), '13');
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  my $ban = $foo;
  $baz = ($foo += 1);
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  is((sprintf "%d", $foo), '14');
  is((sprintf "%d", $bar), '12');
  is((sprintf "%d", $baz), '14');
  is((sprintf "%d", $ban), '13');
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  $baz = 0;
  $baz = $foo++;
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  is((sprintf "%d", $foo), '15');
  is((sprintf "%d", $baz), '14');
  is("$foo", '[++ [+= [++ [++ [n 11] 1] 1] 1] 1]');
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}

{
  my $iter = new symbolic1 2;
  my $side = new symbolic1 1;
  my $cnt = $iter;
  
  while ($cnt) {
    $cnt = $cnt - 1;		# The "simple" way
    $side = (sqrt(1 + $side**2) - 1)/$side;
  }
  my $pi = $side*(2**($iter+2));
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  is("$side", '[/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [n 1] 2]]] 1] [n 1]] 2]]] 1] [/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [n 1] 2]]] 1] [n 1]]]');
  is((sprintf "%f", $pi), '3.182598');
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}

{
  my $iter = new symbolic1 2;
  my $side = new symbolic1 1;
  my $cnt = $iter;
  
  while ($cnt--) {
    $side = (sqrt(1 + $side**2) - 1)/$side;
  }
  my $pi = $side*(2**($iter+2));
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  is("$side", '[/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [n 1] 2]]] 1] [n 1]] 2]]] 1] [/ [- [sqrt [+ 1 [** [n 1] 2]]] 1] [n 1]]]');
  is((sprintf "%f", $pi), '3.182598');
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}

{
  my ($a, $b);
  symbolic1->vars($a, $b);
  my $c = sqrt($a**2 + $b**2);
  $a = 3; $b = 4;
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  is((sprintf "%d", $c), '5');
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  $a = 12; $b = 5;
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  is((sprintf "%d", $c), '13');
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}

{
  package two_face;		# Scalars with separate string and
                                # numeric values.
  sub new { my $p = shift; bless [@_], $p }
  use overload '""' => \&str, '0+' => \&num, fallback => 1;
  sub num {shift->[1]}
  sub str {shift->[0]}
}

{
  my $seven = new two_face ("vii", 7);
686
  is((sprintf "seven=$seven, seven=%d, eight=%d", $seven, $seven+1),
687
	'seven=vii, seven=7, eight=8');
688
  is(scalar ($seven =~ /i/), '1');
689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700
}

{
  package sorting;
  use overload 'cmp' => \&comp;
  sub new { my ($p, $v) = @_; bless \$v, $p }
  sub comp { my ($x,$y) = @_; ($$x * 3 % 10) <=> ($$y * 3 % 10) or $$x cmp $$y }
}
{
  my @arr = map sorting->new($_), 0..12;
  my @sorted1 = sort @arr;
  my @sorted2 = map $$_, @sorted1;
701
  is("@sorted2", '0 10 7 4 1 11 8 5 12 2 9 6 3');
702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709
}
{
  package iterator;
  use overload '<>' => \&iter;
  sub new { my ($p, $v) = @_; bless \$v, $p }
  sub iter { my ($x) = @_; return undef if $$x < 0; return $$x--; }
}

710
{
711 712 713 714
  my $iter = iterator->new(5);
  my $acc = '';
  my $out;
  $acc .= " $out" while $out = <${iter}>;
715
  is($acc, ' 5 4 3 2 1 0');
716
  $iter = iterator->new(5);
717
  is(scalar <${iter}>, '5');
718 719
  $acc = '';
  $acc .= " $out" while $out = <$iter>;
720
  is($acc, ' 4 3 2 1 0');
721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749
}
{
  package deref;
  use overload '%{}' => \&hderef, '&{}' => \&cderef, 
    '*{}' => \&gderef, '${}' => \&sderef, '@{}' => \&aderef;
  sub new { my ($p, $v) = @_; bless \$v, $p }
  sub deref {
    my ($self, $key) = (shift, shift);
    my $class = ref $self;
    bless $self, 'deref::dummy'; # Disable overloading of %{} 
    my $out = $self->{$key};
    bless $self, $class;	# Restore overloading
    $out;
  }
  sub hderef {shift->deref('h')}
  sub aderef {shift->deref('a')}
  sub cderef {shift->deref('c')}
  sub gderef {shift->deref('g')}
  sub sderef {shift->deref('s')}
}
{
  my $deref = bless { h => { foo => 5 , fake => 23 },
		      c => sub {return shift() + 34},
		      's' => \123,
		      a => [11..13],
		      g => \*srt,
		    }, 'deref';
  # Hash:
  my @cont = sort %$deref;
750 751
  if ("\t" eq "\011") { # ASCII
      is("@cont", '23 5 fake foo');
752
  } 
753 754
  else {                # EBCDIC alpha-numeric sort order
      is("@cont", 'fake foo 23 5');
755 756
  }
  my @keys = sort keys %$deref;
757
  is("@keys", 'fake foo');
758
  my @val = sort values %$deref;
759 760 761
  is("@val", '23 5');
  is($deref->{foo}, 5);
  is(defined $deref->{bar}, '');
762 763 764 765
  my $key;
  @keys = ();
  push @keys, $key while $key = each %$deref;
  @keys = sort @keys;
766 767 768
  is("@keys", 'fake foo');
  is(exists $deref->{bar}, '');
  is(exists $deref->{foo}, 1);
769
  # Code:
770 771
  is($deref->(5), 39);
  is(&$deref(6), 40);
772
  sub xxx_goto { goto &$deref }
773
  is(xxx_goto(7), 41);
774 775 776 777
  my $srt = bless { c => sub {$b <=> $a}
		  }, 'deref';
  *srt = \&$srt;
  my @sorted = sort srt 11, 2, 5, 1, 22;
778
  is("@sorted", '22 11 5 2 1');
779
  # Scalar
780
  is($$deref, 123);
781 782
  # Code
  @sorted = sort $srt 11, 2, 5, 1, 22;
783
  is("@sorted", '22 11 5 2 1');
784
  # Array
785 786
  is("@$deref", '11 12 13');
  is($#$deref, '2');
787
  my $l = @$deref;
788 789
  is($l, 3);
  is($deref->[2], '13');
790
  $l = pop @$deref;
791
  is($l, 13);
792
  $l = 1;
793
  is($deref->[$l], '12');
794 795 796
  # Repeated dereference
  my $double = bless { h => $deref,
		     }, 'deref';
797
  is($double->{foo}, 5);
798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833
}

{
  package two_refs;
  use overload '%{}' => \&gethash, '@{}' => sub { ${shift()} };
  sub new { 
    my $p = shift; 
    bless \ [@_], $p;
  }
  sub gethash {
    my %h;
    my $self = shift;
    tie %h, ref $self, $self;
    \%h;
  }

  sub TIEHASH { my $p = shift; bless \ shift, $p }
  my %fields;
  my $i = 0;
  $fields{$_} = $i++ foreach qw{zero one two three};
  sub STORE { 
    my $self = ${shift()};
    my $key = $fields{shift()};
    defined $key or die "Out of band access";
    $$self->[$key] = shift;
  }
  sub FETCH { 
    my $self = ${shift()};
    my $key = $fields{shift()};
    defined $key or die "Out of band access";
    $$self->[$key];
  }
}

my $bar = new two_refs 3,4,5,6;
$bar->[2] = 11;
834
is($bar->{two}, 11);
835
$bar->{three} = 13;
836
is($bar->[3], 13);
837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844

{
  package two_refs_o;
  @ISA = ('two_refs');
}

$bar = new two_refs_o 3,4,5,6;
$bar->[2] = 11;
845
is($bar->{two}, 11);
846
$bar->{three} = 13;
847
is($bar->[3], 13);
848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886

{
  package two_refs1;
  use overload '%{}' => sub { ${shift()}->[1] },
               '@{}' => sub { ${shift()}->[0] };
  sub new { 
    my $p = shift; 
    my $a = [@_];
    my %h;
    tie %h, $p, $a;
    bless \ [$a, \%h], $p;
  }
  sub gethash {
    my %h;
    my $self = shift;
    tie %h, ref $self, $self;
    \%h;
  }

  sub TIEHASH { my $p = shift; bless \ shift, $p }
  my %fields;
  my $i = 0;
  $fields{$_} = $i++ foreach qw{zero one two three};
  sub STORE { 
    my $a = ${shift()};
    my $key = $fields{shift()};
    defined $key or die "Out of band access";
    $a->[$key] = shift;
  }
  sub FETCH { 
    my $a = ${shift()};
    my $key = $fields{shift()};
    defined $key or die "Out of band access";
    $a->[$key];
  }
}

$bar = new two_refs_o 3,4,5,6;
$bar->[2] = 11;
887
is($bar->{two}, 11);
888
$bar->{three} = 13;
889
is($bar->[3], 13);
890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897

{
  package two_refs1_o;
  @ISA = ('two_refs1');
}

$bar = new two_refs1_o 3,4,5,6;
$bar->[2] = 11;
898
is($bar->{two}, 11);
899
$bar->{three} = 13;
900
is($bar->[3], 13);
901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909

{
  package B;
  use overload bool => sub { ${+shift} };
}

my $aaa;
{ my $bbbb = 0; $aaa = bless \$bbbb, B }

910
is !$aaa, 1;
911 912

unless ($aaa) {
913
  pass();
914
} else {
915
  fail();
916 917 918 919 920 921 922
}

# check that overload isn't done twice by join
{ my $c = 0;
  package Join;
  use overload '""' => sub { $c++ };
  my $x = join '', bless([]), 'pq', bless([]);
923
  main::is $x, '0pq1';
924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931
};

# Test module-specific warning
{
    # check the Odd number of arguments for overload::constant warning
    my $a = "" ;
    local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub {$a = $_[0]} ;
    $x = eval ' overload::constant "integer" ; ' ;
932
    is($a, "");
933 934
    use warnings 'overload' ;
    $x = eval ' overload::constant "integer" ; ' ;
935
    like($a, qr/^Odd number of arguments for overload::constant at/);
936 937 938
}

{
939
    # check the '$_[0]' is not an overloadable type warning
940 941 942
    my $a = "" ;
    local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub {$a = $_[0]} ;
    $x = eval ' overload::constant "fred" => sub {} ; ' ;
943
    is($a, "");
944 945
    use warnings 'overload' ;
    $x = eval ' overload::constant "fred" => sub {} ; ' ;
946
    like($a, qr/^'fred' is not an overloadable type at/);
947 948 949
}

{
950
    # check the '$_[1]' is not a code reference warning
951 952 953
    my $a = "" ;
    local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub {$a = $_[0]} ;
    $x = eval ' overload::constant "integer" => 1; ' ;
954
    is($a, "");
955 956
    use warnings 'overload' ;
    $x = eval ' overload::constant "integer" => 1; ' ;
957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964
    like($a, qr/^'1' is not a code reference at/);
}

{
    # check the invalid argument warning [perl #74098]
    my $a = "" ;
    local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub {$a = $_[0]} ;
    $x = eval ' use overload "~|_|~" => sub{} ' ;
965
    eval ' no overload "~|_|~" ' ;
966 967 968 969 970
    is($a, "");
    use warnings 'overload' ;
    $x = eval ' use overload "~|_|~" => sub{} ' ;
    like($a, qr/^overload arg '~\|_\|~' is invalid at \(eval \d+\) line /,
	'invalid arg warning');
971 972 973 974
    undef $a;
    eval ' no overload "~|_|~" ' ;
    like($a, qr/^overload arg '~\|_\|~' is invalid at \(eval \d+\) line /,
	'invalid arg warning');
975 976
}

977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999
{
  my $c = 0;
  package ov_int1;
  use overload '""'    => sub { 3+shift->[0] },
               '0+'    => sub { 10+shift->[0] },
               'int'   => sub { 100+shift->[0] };
  sub new {my $p = shift; bless [shift], $p}

  package ov_int2;
  use overload '""'    => sub { 5+shift->[0] },
               '0+'    => sub { 30+shift->[0] },
               'int'   => sub { 'ov_int1'->new(1000+shift->[0]) };
  sub new {my $p = shift; bless [shift], $p}

  package noov_int;
  use overload '""'    => sub { 2+shift->[0] },
               '0+'    => sub { 9+shift->[0] };
  sub new {my $p = shift; bless [shift], $p}

  package main;

  my $x = new noov_int 11;
  my $int_x = int $x;
1000
  main::is("$int_x", 20);
1001 1002
  $x = new ov_int1 31;
  $int_x = int $x;
1003
  main::is("$int_x", 131);
1004 1005
  $x = new ov_int2 51;
  $int_x = int $x;
1006
  main::is("$int_x", 1054);
1007 1008
}

1009
# make sure that we don't infinitely recurse
1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017
{
  my $c = 0;
  package Recurse;
  use overload '""'    => sub { shift },
               '0+'    => sub { shift },
               'bool'  => sub { shift },
               fallback => 1;
  my $x = bless([]);
1018 1019 1020 1021
  # For some reason beyond me these have to be oks rather than likes.
  main::ok("$x" =~ /Recurse=ARRAY/);
  main::ok($x);
  main::ok($x+0 =~ qr/Recurse=ARRAY/);
1022 1023
}

1024
# BugID 20010422.003 (#6872)
1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051
package Foo;

use overload
  'bool' => sub { return !$_[0]->is_zero() || undef; }
;
 
sub is_zero
  {
  my $self = shift;
  return $self->{var} == 0;
  }

sub new
  {
  my $class = shift;
  my $self =  {};
  $self->{var} = shift;
  bless $self,$class;
  }

package main;

use strict;

my $r = Foo->new(8);
$r = Foo->new(0);

1052
is(($r || 0), 0);
1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071

package utf8_o;

use overload 
  '""'  =>  sub { return $_[0]->{var}; }
  ;
  
sub new
  {
    my $class = shift;
    my $self =  {};
    $self->{var} = shift;
    bless $self,$class;
  }

package main;


my $utfvar = new utf8_o 200.2.1;
1072 1073
is("$utfvar", 200.2.1); # 223 - stringify
is("a$utfvar", "a".200.2.1); # 224 - overload via sv_2pv_flags
1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088

# 225..227 -- more %{} tests.  Hangs in 5.6.0, okay in later releases.
# Basically this example implements strong encapsulation: if Hderef::import()
# were to eval the overload code in the caller's namespace, the privatisation
# would be quite transparent.
package Hderef;
use overload '%{}' => sub { (caller(0))[0] eq 'Foo' ? $_[0] : die "zap" };
package Foo;
@Foo::ISA = 'Hderef';
sub new { bless {}, shift }
sub xet { @_ == 2 ? $_[0]->{$_[1]} :
	  @_ == 3 ? ($_[0]->{$_[1]} = $_[2]) : undef }
package main;
my $a = Foo->new;
$a->xet('b', 42);
1089 1090 1091
is ($a->xet('b'), 42);
ok (!defined eval { $a->{b} });
like ($@, qr/zap/);
1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105

{
   package t229;
   use overload '='  => sub { 42 },
                '++' => sub { my $x = ${$_[0]}; $_[0] };
   sub new { my $x = 42; bless \$x }

   my $warn;
   {  
     local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub { $warn++ };
      my $x = t229->new;
      my $y = $x;
      eval { $y++ };
   }
1106
   main::ok (!$warn);
1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115
}

{
    my ($int, $out1, $out2);
    {
        BEGIN { $int = 0; overload::constant 'integer' => sub {$int++; 17}; }
        $out1 = 0;
        $out2 = 1;
    }
1116 1117 1118
    is($int,  2,  "#24313");	# 230
    is($out1, 17, "#24313");	# 231
    is($out2, 17, "#24313");	# 232
1119
}
1120

1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129
{
    package perl31793;
    use overload cmp => sub { 0 };
    package perl31793_fb;
    use overload cmp => sub { 0 }, fallback => 1;
    package main;
    my $o  = bless [], 'perl31793';
    my $of = bless [], 'perl31793_fb';
    my $no = bless [], 'no_overload';
1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135
    like(overload::StrVal(\"scalar"), qr/^SCALAR\(0x[0-9a-f]+\)$/);
    like(overload::StrVal([]),        qr/^ARRAY\(0x[0-9a-f]+\)$/);
    like(overload::StrVal({}),        qr/^HASH\(0x[0-9a-f]+\)$/);
    like(overload::StrVal(sub{1}),    qr/^CODE\(0x[0-9a-f]+\)$/);
    like(overload::StrVal(\*GLOB),    qr/^GLOB\(0x[0-9a-f]+\)$/);
    like(overload::StrVal(\$o),       qr/^REF\(0x[0-9a-f]+\)$/);
1136
    like(overload::StrVal(qr/a/),     qr/^Regexp=REGEXP\(0x[0-9a-f]+\)$/);
1137 1138 1139
    like(overload::StrVal($o),        qr/^perl31793=ARRAY\(0x[0-9a-f]+\)$/);
    like(overload::StrVal($of),       qr/^perl31793_fb=ARRAY\(0x[0-9a-f]+\)$/);
    like(overload::StrVal($no),       qr/^no_overload=ARRAY\(0x[0-9a-f]+\)$/);
1140 1141
}

1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155
{
    package Numify;
    use overload (qw(0+ numify fallback 1));

    sub new {
	my $val = $_[1];
	bless \$val, $_[0];
    }

    sub numify { ${$_[0]} }
}

# These all check that overloaded values, rather than reference addresses,
# are what are getting tested.
1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169
my ($two, $one, $un, $deux) = map {new Numify $_} 2, 1, 1, 2;
my ($ein, $zwei) = (1, 2);

my %map = (one => 1, un => 1, ein => 1, deux => 2, two => 2, zwei => 2);
foreach my $op (qw(<=> == != < <= > >=)) {
    foreach my $l (keys %map) {
	foreach my $r (keys %map) {
	    my $ocode = "\$$l $op \$$r";
	    my $rcode = "$map{$l} $op $map{$r}";

	    my $got = eval $ocode;
	    die if $@;
	    my $expect = eval $rcode;
	    die if $@;
1170
	    is ($got, $expect, $ocode) or print "# $rcode\n";
1171 1172 1173
	}
    }
}
1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196
{
    # check that overloading works in regexes
    {
	package Foo493;
	use overload
	    '""' => sub { "^$_[0][0]\$" },
	    '.'  => sub { 
		    bless [
			     $_[2]
			    ? (ref $_[1] ? $_[1][0] : $_[1]) . ':' .$_[0][0] 
			    : $_[0][0] . ':' . (ref $_[1] ? $_[1][0] : $_[1])
		    ], 'Foo493'
			};
    }

    my $a = bless [ "a" ], 'Foo493';
    like('a', qr/$a/);
    like('x:a', qr/x$a/);
    like('x:a:=', qr/x$a=$/);
    like('x:a:a:=', qr/x$a$a=$/);

}

1197 1198 1199 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208
{
    {
        package QRonly;
        use overload qr => sub { qr/x/ }, fallback => 1;
    }
    {
        my $x = bless [], "QRonly";

        # like tries to be too clever, and decides that $x-stringified
        # doesn't look like a regex
        ok("x" =~ $x, "qr-only matches");
        ok("y" !~ $x, "qr-only doesn't match what it shouldn't");
1209 1210
        ok("x" =~ /^(??{$x})$/, "qr-only with ?? matches");
        ok("y" !~ /^(??{$x})$/, "qr-only with ?? doesn't match what it shouldn't");
1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216
        ok("xx" =~ /x$x/, "qr-only matches with concat");
        like("$x", qr/^QRonly=ARRAY/, "qr-only doesn't have string overload");

        my $qr = bless qr/y/, "QRonly";
        ok("x" =~ $qr, "qr with qr-overload uses overload");
        ok("y" !~ $qr, "qr with qr-overload uses overload");
1217 1218
	ok("x" =~ /^(??{$qr})$/, "qr with qr-overload with ?? uses overload");
	ok("y" !~ /^(??{$qr})$/, "qr with qr-overload with ?? uses overload");
1219 1220 1221 1222 1223
        is("$qr", "".qr/y/, "qr with qr-overload stringify");

        my $rx = $$qr;
        ok("y" =~ $rx, "bare rx with qr-overload doesn't overload match");
        ok("x" !~ $rx, "bare rx with qr-overload doesn't overload match");
1224 1225
        ok("y" =~ /^(??{$rx})$/, "bare rx with qr-overload with ?? doesn't overload match");
        ok("x" !~ /^(??{$rx})$/, "bare rx with qr-overload with ?? doesn't overload match");
1226 1227 1228 1229 1230 1231 1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287
        is("$rx", "".qr/y/, "bare rx with qr-overload stringify");
    }
    {
        package QRandSTR;
        use overload qr => sub { qr/x/ }, q/""/ => sub { "y" };
    }
    {
        my $x = bless [], "QRandSTR";
        ok("x" =~ $x, "qr+str uses qr for match");
        ok("y" !~ $x, "qr+str uses qr for match");
        ok("xx" =~ /x$x/, "qr+str uses qr for match with concat");
        is("$x", "y", "qr+str uses str for stringify");

        my $qr = bless qr/z/, "QRandSTR";
        is("$qr", "y", "qr with qr+str uses str for stringify");
        ok("xx" =~ /x$x/, "qr with qr+str uses qr for match");

        my $rx = $$qr;
        ok("z" =~ $rx, "bare rx with qr+str doesn't overload match");
        is("$rx", "".qr/z/, "bare rx with qr+str doesn't overload stringify");
    }
    {
        package QRany;
        use overload qr => sub { $_[0]->(@_) };

        package QRself;
        use overload qr => sub { $_[0] };
    }
    {
        my $rx = bless sub { ${ qr/x/ } }, "QRany";
        ok("x" =~ $rx, "qr overload accepts a bare rx");
        ok("y" !~ $rx, "qr overload accepts a bare rx");

        my $str = bless sub { "x" }, "QRany";
        ok(!eval { "x" =~ $str }, "qr overload doesn't accept a string");
        like($@, qr/^Overloaded qr did not return a REGEXP/, "correct error");

        my $oqr = bless qr/z/, "QRandSTR";
        my $oqro = bless sub { $oqr }, "QRany";
        ok("z" =~ $oqro, "qr overload doesn't recurse");

        my $qrs = bless qr/z/, "QRself";
        ok("z" =~ $qrs, "qr overload can return self");
    }
    {
        package STRonly;
        use overload q/""/ => sub { "x" };

        package STRonlyFB;
        use overload q/""/ => sub { "x" }, fallback => 1;
    }
    {
        my $fb = bless [], "STRonlyFB";
        ok("x" =~ $fb, "qr falls back to \"\"");
        ok("y" !~ $fb, "qr falls back to \"\"");

        my $nofb = bless [], "STRonly";
        ok("x" =~ $nofb, "qr falls back even without fallback");
        ok("y" !~ $nofb, "qr falls back even without fallback");
    }
}

1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294
{
    my $twenty_three = 23;
    # Check that constant overloading propagates into evals
    BEGIN { overload::constant integer => sub { 23 } }
    is(eval "17", $twenty_three);
}

1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307
{
    # Check readonliness of constants, whether shared hash key
    # scalars or no (brought up in bug #109744)
    BEGIN { overload::constant integer => sub { "main" }; }
    eval { ${\5} = 'whatever' };
    like $@, qr/^Modification of a read-only value attempted at /,
	'constant overloading makes read-only constants';
    BEGIN { overload::constant integer => sub { __PACKAGE__ }; }
    eval { ${\5} = 'whatever' };
    like $@, qr/^Modification of a read-only value attempted at /,
	'... even with shared hash key scalars';
}

1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351
{
    package Sklorsh;
    use overload
	bool     => sub { shift->is_cool };

    sub is_cool {
	$_[0]->{name} eq 'cool';
    }

    sub delete {
	undef %{$_[0]};
	bless $_[0], 'Brap';
	return 1;
    }

    sub delete_with_self {
	my $self = shift;
	undef %$self;
	bless $self, 'Brap';
	return 1;
    }

    package Brap;

    1;

    package main;

    my $obj;
    $obj = bless {name => 'cool'}, 'Sklorsh';
    $obj->delete;
    ok(eval {if ($obj) {1}; 1}, $@ || 'reblessed into nonexistent namespace');

    $obj = bless {name => 'cool'}, 'Sklorsh';
    $obj->delete_with_self;
    ok (eval {if ($obj) {1}; 1}, $@);
    
    my $a = $b = {name => 'hot'};
    bless $b, 'Sklorsh';
    is(ref $a, 'Sklorsh');
    is(ref $b, 'Sklorsh');
    ok(!$b, "Expect overloaded boolean");
    ok(!$a, "Expect overloaded boolean");
}
1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391

{
    package Flrbbbbb;
    use overload
	bool	 => sub { shift->{truth} eq 'yes' },
	'0+'	 => sub { shift->{truth} eq 'yes' ? '1' : '0' },
	'!'	 => sub { shift->{truth} eq 'no' },
	fallback => 1;

    sub new { my $class = shift; bless { truth => shift }, $class }

    package main;

    my $yes = Flrbbbbb->new('yes');
    my $x;
    $x = 1 if $yes;			is($x, 1);
    $x = 2 unless $yes;			is($x, 1);
    $x = 3 if !$yes;			is($x, 1);
    $x = 4 unless !$yes;		is($x, 4);

    my $no = Flrbbbbb->new('no');
    $x = 0;
    $x = 1 if $no;			is($x, 0);
    $x = 2 unless $no;			is($x, 2);
    $x = 3 if !$no;			is($x, 3);
    $x = 4 unless !$no;			is($x, 3);

    $x = 0;
    $x = 1 if !$no && $yes;		is($x, 1);
    $x = 2 unless !$no && $yes;		is($x, 1);
    $x = 3 if $no || !$yes;		is($x, 1);
    $x = 4 unless $no || !$yes;		is($x, 4);

    $x = 0;
    $x = 1 if !$no || !$yes;		is($x, 1);
    $x = 2 unless !$no || !$yes;	is($x, 1);
    $x = 3 if !$no && !$yes;		is($x, 1);
    $x = 4 unless !$no && !$yes;	is($x, 4);
}

1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405
{
    use Scalar::Util 'weaken';

    package Shklitza;
    use overload '""' => sub {"CLiK KLAK"};

    package Ksshfwoom;

    package main;

    my ($obj, $ref);
    $obj = bless do {my $a; \$a}, 'Shklitza';
    $ref = $obj;

1406 1407
    is ("$obj", "CLiK KLAK");
    is ("$ref", "CLiK KLAK");
1408 1409

    weaken $ref;
1410
    is ("$ref", "CLiK KLAK");
1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454

    bless $obj, 'Ksshfwoom';

    like ($obj, qr/^Ksshfwoom=/);
    like ($ref, qr/^Ksshfwoom=/);

    undef $obj;
    is ($ref, undef);
}

{
    package bit;
    # bit operations have overloadable assignment variants too

    sub new { bless \$_[1], $_[0] }

    use overload
          "&=" => sub { bit->new($_[0]->val . ' & ' . $_[1]->val) }, 
          "^=" => sub { bit->new($_[0]->val . ' ^ ' . $_[1]->val) },
          "|"  => sub { bit->new($_[0]->val . ' | ' . $_[1]->val) }, # |= by fallback
          ;

    sub val { ${$_[0]} }

    package main;

    my $a = bit->new(my $va = 'a');
    my $b = bit->new(my $vb = 'b');

    $a &= $b;
    is($a->val, 'a & b', "overloaded &= works");

    my $c = bit->new(my $vc = 'c');

    $b ^= $c;
    is($b->val, 'b ^ c', "overloaded ^= works");

    my $d = bit->new(my $vd = 'd');

    $c |= $d;
    is($c->val, 'c | d', "overloaded |= (by fallback) works");
}

{
1455
    # comparison operators with nomethod (bug 41546)
1456 1457 1458 1459 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500
    my $warning = "";
    my $method;

    package nomethod_false;
    use overload nomethod => sub { $method = 'nomethod'; 0 };

    package nomethod_true;
    use overload nomethod => sub { $method= 'nomethod'; 'true' };

    package main;
    local $^W = 1;
    local $SIG{__WARN__} = sub { $warning = $_[0] };

    my $f = bless [], 'nomethod_false';
    ($warning, $method) = ("", "");
    is($f eq 'whatever', 0, 'nomethod makes eq return 0');
    is($method, 'nomethod');

    my $t = bless [], 'nomethod_true';
    ($warning, $method) = ("", "");
    is($t eq 'whatever', 'true', 'nomethod makes eq return "true"');
    is($method, 'nomethod');
    is($warning, "", 'nomethod eq need not return number');

    eval q{ 
        package nomethod_false;
        use overload cmp => sub { $method = 'cmp'; 0 };
    };
    $f = bless [], 'nomethod_false';
    ($warning, $method) = ("", "");
    ok($f eq 'whatever', 'eq falls back to cmp (nomethod not called)');
    is($method, 'cmp');

    eval q{
        package nomethod_true;
        use overload cmp => sub { $method = 'cmp'; 'true' };
    };
    $t = bless [], 'nomethod_true';
    ($warning, $method) = ("", "");
    ok($t eq 'whatever', 'eq falls back to cmp (nomethod not called)');
    is($method, 'cmp');
    like($warning, qr/isn't numeric/, 'cmp should return number');

}

1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509 1510 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515
{
    # nomethod called for '!' after attempted fallback
    my $nomethod_called = 0;

    package nomethod_not;
    use overload nomethod => sub { $nomethod_called = 'yes'; };

    package main;
    my $o = bless [], 'nomethod_not';
    my $res = ! $o;

    is($nomethod_called, 'yes', "nomethod() is called for '!'");
    is($res, 'yes', "nomethod(..., '!') return value propagates");
}

1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591 1592
{
    # Subtle bug pre 5.10, as a side effect of the overloading flag being
    # stored on the reference rather than the referent. Despite the fact that
    # objects can only be accessed via references (even internally), the
    # referent actually knows that it's blessed, not the references. So taking
    # a new, unrelated, reference to it gives an object. However, the
    # overloading-or-not flag was on the reference prior to 5.10, and taking
    # a new reference didn't (use to) copy it.

    package kayo;

    use overload '""' => sub {${$_[0]}};

    sub Pie {
	return "$_[0], $_[1]";
    }

    package main;

    my $class = 'kayo';
    my $string = 'bam';
    my $crunch_eth = bless \$string, $class;

    is("$crunch_eth", $string);
    is ($crunch_eth->Pie("Meat"), "$string, Meat");

    my $wham_eth = \$string;

    is("$wham_eth", $string,
       'This reference did not have overloading in 5.8.8 and earlier');
    is ($crunch_eth->Pie("Apple"), "$string, Apple");

    my $class = ref $wham_eth;
    $class =~ s/=.*//;

    # Bless it back into its own class!
    bless $wham_eth, $class;

    is("$wham_eth", $string);
    is ($crunch_eth->Pie("Blackbird"), "$string, Blackbird");
}

{
    package numify_int;
    use overload "0+" => sub { $_[0][0] += 1; 42 };
    package numify_self;
    use overload "0+" => sub { $_[0][0]++; $_[0] };
    package numify_other;
    use overload "0+" => sub { $_[0][0]++; $_[0][1] = bless [], 'numify_int' };
    package numify_by_fallback;
    use overload fallback => 1;

    package main;
    my $o = bless [], 'numify_int';
    is(int($o), 42, 'numifies to integer');
    is($o->[0], 1, 'int() numifies only once');

    my $aref = [];
    my $num_val = int($aref);
    my $r = bless $aref, 'numify_self';
    is(int($r), $num_val, 'numifies to self');
    is($r->[0], 1, 'int() numifies once when returning self');

    my $s = bless [], 'numify_other';
    is(int($s), 42, 'numifies to numification of other object');
    is($s->[0], 1, 'int() numifies once when returning other object');
    is($s->[1][0], 1, 'returned object numifies too');

    my $m = bless $aref, 'numify_by_fallback';
    is(int($m), $num_val, 'numifies to usual reference value');
    is(abs($m), $num_val, 'numifies to usual reference value');
    is(-$m, -$num_val, 'numifies to usual reference value');
    is(0+$m, $num_val, 'numifies to usual reference value');
    is($m+0, $num_val, 'numifies to usual reference value');
    is($m+$m, 2*$num_val, 'numifies to usual reference value');
    is(0-$m, -$num_val, 'numifies to usual reference value');
    is(1*$m, $num_val, 'numifies to usual reference value');
1593
    is(int($m/1), $num_val, 'numifies to usual reference value');
1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602 1603
    is($m%100, $num_val%100, 'numifies to usual reference value');
    is($m**1, $num_val, 'numifies to usual reference value');

    is(abs($aref), $num_val, 'abs() of ref');
    is(-$aref, -$num_val, 'negative of ref');
    is(0+$aref, $num_val, 'ref addition');
    is($aref+0, $num_val, 'ref addition');
    is($aref+$aref, 2*$num_val, 'ref addition');
    is(0-$aref, -$num_val, 'subtraction of ref');
    is(1*$aref, $num_val, 'multiplicaton of ref');
1604
    is(int($aref/1), $num_val, 'division of ref');
1605 1606 1607 1608
    is($aref%100, $num_val%100, 'modulo of ref');
    is($aref**1, $num_val, 'exponentiation of ref');
}

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{
    package CopyConstructorFallback;
    use overload
        '++'        => sub { "$_[0]"; $_[0] },
        fallback    => 1;
    sub new { bless {} => shift }

    package main;

    my $o = CopyConstructorFallback->new;
    my $x = $o++; # would segfault
    my $y = ++$o;
    is($x, $o, "copy constructor falls back to assignment (postinc)");
    is($y, $o, "copy constructor falls back to assignment (preinc)");
}

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# only scalar 'x' should currently overload

{
    package REPEAT;

    my ($x,$n, $nm);

    use overload
	'x'        => sub { $x++; 1 },
	'0+'       => sub { $n++; 1 },
	'nomethod' => sub { $nm++; 1 },
	'fallback' => 0,
    ;

    my $s = bless {};

    package main;

    my @a;
    my $count = 3;

    ($x,$n,$nm) = (0,0,0);
    @a = ((1,2,$s) x $count);
    is("$x-$n-$nm", "0-0-0", 'repeat 1');

    ($x,$n,$nm) = (0,0,0);
    @a = ((1,$s,3) x $count);
    is("$x-$n-$nm", "0-0-0", 'repeat 2');

    ($x,$n,$nm) = (0,0,0);
    @a = ((1,2,3) x $s);
    is("$x-$n-$nm", "0-1-0", 'repeat 3');
}



# RT #57012: magic items need to have mg_get() called before testing for
# overload. Lack of this means that overloaded values returned by eg a
# tied array didn't call overload methods.
# We test here both a tied array and scalar, since the implementation of
# tied  arrays (and hashes) is such that in rvalue context, mg_get is
# called prior to executing the op, while it isn't for a tied scalar.
# We also check that return values are correctly tainted.
# We try against two overload packages; one has all expected methods, the
# other uses only fallback methods.

{

    # @tests holds a list of test cases. Each elem is an array ref with
    # the following entries:
    #
    #  * the value that the overload method should return
    #
    #  * the expression to be evaled. %s is replaced with the
    #       variable being tested ($ta[0], $ts, or $plain)
    #
    #  * a string listing what functions we expect to be called.
    #       Each method appends its name in parentheses, so "(=)(+)" means
    #       we expect the copy constructor and then the add method to be
    #       called.
    #
    #  * like above, but what should be called for the fallback-only test
    #      (in this case, nomethod() identifies itself as "(NM:*)" where *
    #      is the op).  If this value is undef, fallback tests are skipped.
    #
    #  * An array ref of expected counts of calls to FETCH/STORE.
    #      The first three values are:
    #         1. the expected number of FETCHs for a tied array
    #         2. the expected number of FETCHs for a tied scalar
    #         3. the expected number of STOREs
    #       If there are a further three elements present, then
    #       these represent the expected counts for the fallback
    #       version of the tests. If absent, they are assumed to
    #       be the same as for the full method test
    #
    #  * Under the taint version of the tests,  whether we expect
    #       the result to be tainted (for example comparison ops
    #       like '==' don't return a tainted value, even if their
    #       args are.
    my @tests;

    my %subs;
    my $funcs;
    my $use_int;

    BEGIN {
	# A note on what methods to expect to be called, and
	# how many times FETCH/STORE is called:
	#
	# Mutating ops (+=, ++ etc) trigger a copy ('='), since
	# the code can't distinguish between something that's been copied:
	#    $a = foo->new(0); $b = $a; refcnt($$b) == 2
	# and overloaded objects stored in ties which will have extra
	# refcounts due to the tied_obj magic and entries on the tmps
	# stack when returning from FETCH etc. So we always copy.

	# This accounts for a '=', and an extra STORE.
	# We also have a FETCH returning the final value from the eval,
	# plus a FETCH in the overload subs themselves: ($_[0][0])
	# triggers one. However, tied aggregates have a mechanism to prevent
	# multiple fetches between STOREs, which means that the tied
	# hash skips doing a FETCH during '='.

	for (qw(+ - * / % ** << >> & | ^)) {
	    my $op = $_;
	    $op = '%%' if $op eq '%';
	    my $e = "%s $op= 3";
	    $subs{"$_="} = $e;
	    # ARRAY  FETCH: initial,        sub+=, eval-return,
	    # SCALAR FETCH: initial, sub=,  sub+=, eval-return,
	    # STORE:        copy, mutator
	    push @tests, [ 18, $e, "(=)($_=)", "(=)(NM:$_=)", [ 3, 4, 2 ], 1 ];

	    $subs{$_} =
		"do { my \$arg = %s; \$_[2] ? (3 $op \$arg) : (\$arg $op 3) }";
	    # ARRAY  FETCH: initial
	    # SCALAR FETCH: initial eval-return,
	    push @tests, [ 18, "%s $op 3", "($_)", "(NM:$_)", [ 1, 2, 0 ], 1 ];
	    push @tests, [ 18, "3 $op %s", "($_)", "(NM:$_)", [ 1, 2, 0 ], 1 ];
	}

	# these use string fallback rather than nomethod
	for (qw(x .)) {
	    my $op = $_;
	    my $e = "%s $op= 3";
	    $subs{"$_="} = $e;
	    # For normal case:
	    #   ARRAY  FETCH: initial,        sub+=, eval-return,
	    #   SCALAR FETCH: initial, sub=,  sub+=, eval-return,
	    #          STORE: copy, mutator
	    # for fallback, we just stringify, so eval-return and copy skipped

	    push @tests, [ 18, $e, "(=)($_=)", '("")',
			    [ 3, 4, 2,     2, 3, 1 ], 1 ];

	    $subs{$_} =
		"do { my \$arg = %s; \$_[2] ? (3 $op \$arg) : (\$arg $op 3) }";
	    # ARRAY  FETCH: initial
	    # SCALAR FETCH: initial eval-return,
	    # with fallback, we just stringify, so eval-return skipped,
	    #    but an extra FETCH happens in sub"", except for 'x',
	    #    which passes a copy of the RV to sub"", avoiding the
	    #    second FETCH

	    push @tests, [ 18, "%s $op 3", "($_)", '("")',
			    [ 1, 2, 0,     1, ($_ eq '.' ? 2 : 1), 0 ], 1 ];
	    next if $_ eq 'x'; # repeat only overloads on LHS
	    push @tests, [ 18, "3 $op %s", "($_)", '("")',
			    [ 1, 2, 0,     1, 2, 0 ], 1 ];
	}

	for (qw(++ --)) {
	    my $pre  = "$_%s";
	    my $post = "%s$_";
	    $subs{$_} = $pre;
	    push @tests,
		# ARRAY  FETCH: initial,        sub+=, eval-return,
		# SCALAR FETCH: initial, sub=,  sub+=, eval-return,
		# STORE:        copy, mutator
		[ 18, $pre, "(=)($_)(\"\")", "(=)(NM:$_)(\"\")", [ 3, 4, 2 ], 1 ],
		# ARRAY  FETCH: initial,        sub+=
		# SCALAR FETCH: initial, sub=,  sub+=
		# STORE:        copy, mutator
		[ 18, $post, "(=)($_)(\"\")", "(=)(NM:$_)(\"\")", [ 2, 3, 2 ], 1 ];
	}

	# For the non-mutator ops, we have a initial FETCH,
	# an extra FETCH within the sub itself for the scalar option,
	# and no STOREs

	for (qw(< <= >  >= == != lt le gt ge eq ne)) {
	    my $e = "%s $_ 3";
	    $subs{$_} = $e;
	    push @tests, [ 3, $e, "($_)", "(NM:$_)", [ 1, 2, 0 ], 0 ];
	}
	for (qw(<=> cmp)) {
	    my $e = "%s $_ 3";
	    $subs{$_} = $e;
	    push @tests, [ 3, $e, "($_)", "(NM:$_)", [ 1, 2, 0 ], 1 ];
	}
	for (qw(atan2)) {
	    my $e = "$_ %s, 3";
	    $subs{$_} = $e;
	    push @tests, [ 18, $e, "($_)", "(NM:$_)", [ 1, 2, 0 ], 1 ];
	}
	for (qw(cos sin exp abs log sqrt int ~)) {
	    my $e = "$_(%s)";
	    $subs{$_} = $e;
	    push @tests, [ 1.23, $e, "($_)",
		    ($_ eq 'int' ? '(0+)' : "(NM:$_)") , [ 1, 2, 0 ], 1 ];
	}
	for (qw(!)) {
	    my $e = "$_(%s)";
	    $subs{$_} = $e;
	    push @tests, [ 1.23, $e, "($_)", '(0+)', [ 1, 2, 0 ], 0 ];
	}
	for (qw(-)) {
	    my $e = "$_(%s)";
	    $subs{neg} = $e;
	    push @tests, [ 18, $e, '(neg)', '(NM:neg)', [ 1, 2, 0 ], 1 ];
	}
	my $e = '(%s) ? 1 : 0';
	$subs{bool} = $e;
	push @tests, [ 18, $e, '(bool)', '(0+)', [ 1, 2, 0 ], 0 ];

	# note: this is testing unary qr, not binary =~
	$subs{qr} = '(qr/%s/)';
	push @tests, [ "abc", '"abc" =~ (%s)', '(qr)', '("")', [ 1, 2, 0 ], 0 ];
1833 1834
	push @tests, [ chr 256, 'chr(256) =~ (%s)', '(qr)', '("")',
	                                                  [ 1, 2, 0 ], 0 ];
1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861

	$e = '"abc" ~~ (%s)';
	$subs{'~~'} = $e;
	push @tests, [ "abc", $e, '(~~)', '(NM:~~)', [ 1, 1, 0 ], 0 ];

	$subs{'-X'} = 'do { my $f = (%s);'
		    . '$_[1] eq "r" ? (-r ($f)) :'
		    . '$_[1] eq "e" ? (-e ($f)) :'
		    . '$_[1] eq "f" ? (-f ($f)) :'
		    . '$_[1] eq "l" ? (-l ($f)) :'
		    . '$_[1] eq "t" ? (-t ($f)) :'
		    . '$_[1] eq "T" ? (-T ($f)) : 0;}';
	# Note - we don't care what these file tests return, as
	# long as the tied and untied versions return the same value.
	# The flags below are chosen to test all uses of tryAMAGICftest_MG
	for (qw(r e f l t T)) {
	    push @tests, [ 'TEST', "-$_ (%s)", '(-X)', '("")', [ 1, 2, 0 ], 0 ];
	}

	$subs{'${}'} = '%s';
	push @tests, [ do {my $s=99; \$s}, '${%s}', '(${})', undef, [ 1, 1, 0 ], 0 ];

	# we skip testing '@{}' here because too much of this test
	# framework involves array dereferences!

	$subs{'%{}'} = '%s';
	push @tests, [ {qw(a 1 b 2 c 3)}, 'join "", sort keys %%{%s}',
1862
			'(%{})', undef, [ 1, 1, 0 ], 0 ];
1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878

	$subs{'&{}'} = '%s';
	push @tests, [ sub {99}, 'do {&{%s} for 1,2}',
			    '(&{})(&{})', undef, [ 2, 2, 0 ], 0 ];

	our $RT57012A = 88;
	our $RT57012B;
	$subs{'*{}'} = '%s';
	push @tests, [ \*RT57012A, '*RT57012B = *{%s}; our $RT57012B',
		'(*{})', undef, [ 1, 1, 0 ], 0 ];

	my $iter_text = ("some random text\n" x 100) . $^X;
	open my $iter_fh, '<', \$iter_text
	    or die "open of \$iter_text gave ($!)\n";
	$subs{'<>'} = '<$iter_fh>';
	push @tests, [ $iter_fh, '<%s>', '(<>)', undef, [ 1, 1, 0 ], 1 ];